Intrinsic Value vs Market Value, Explained

Intrinsic value vs market value refers to the difference between where a stock is trading and where it ought to be according to its fundamentals. The term “market value” simply refers to the current market price of a security. Intrinsic value represents the price at which investors believe the security should be trading at. Intrinsic value is also known as “fair market value” or simply “fair value.”

According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, the word “intrinsic” means “belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing.” At times, stocks become overbought or oversold, meaning their market price can rise above or below their intrinsic value.

When it comes to value vs. growth stocks, value investors look for companies that are out of favor and below their intrinsic value. The idea is that sooner or later stocks return to their intrinsic value.

What Is Market Value?

In a sense, there is only one measure of market value: what price the market assigns to a stock, based on existing demand.

stock market crash, for example, fear may grip investors and the market value of many stocks could fall well below their fair market values.

News headlines can drive stock prices above or below their intrinsic value. After reading an earnings report that’s positive, investors may pile into a stock. Even though better-than-expected earnings might increase the intrinsic value of a stock to a certain degree, investors can get greedy in the short-term and create overextended gains in the stock price.

The rationale behind value vs price, and behind value investing as a whole, is that stocks tend to overshoot their fair market value to the upside or the downside.

When this leads to a stock being oversold, the idea is that investors could take advantage of the buying opportunity. It’s assumed that the stock will then eventually rise to its intrinsic value.

What Is Intrinsic Value?

The factors that can be used to determine intrinsic value are related to the fundamental operations of a company. It can be tricky to figure how to evaluate a stock. Depending on which factors they examine and how they interpret them, analysts can come to different conclusions about the intrinsic value of a stock.

It’s not easy to come to a reasonable estimation of a company’s valuation. Some of the variables involved have no direct physical, measurable counterpart, like intangible assets. Intangible assets include things like copyrights, patents, reputation, consumer loyalty, and so on. Analysts come to their own conclusions when trying to assign a value to these assets.

Tangible assets include things like cash reserves, corporate bonds, equipment, land, manufacturing capacity, etc. These tend to be easier to value because they can be assigned a numerical value in dollar terms. Things like the company’s business plan, financial statements, and balance sheet have a tangible aspect in that they are objective documents.

Calculating Intrinsic Value vs Market Value

There can be multiple different ways to determine the intrinsic value of an asset. These methods are broadly referred to as valuation methods, or using fundamental analysis on stocks or other securities. The methods vary according to the type of asset and how an investor chooses to look at that asset.

Calculating Intrinsic Value

For dividend-yielding stocks, for example, the dividend discount model provides a mathematical formula that aims to find the intrinsic value of a stock based on its dividend growth over a certain period of time. Here is what is a dividend: periodic income given to shareholders by a company.

market cap is:

Total number of outstanding shares multiplied by the current stock price.

Dividing market cap by number of shares also leads to the current stock price.

Sometimes companies engage in “corporate stock buybacks,” whereby they purchase their own shares, which reduces the total number of shares available on the market.

This increases the price of a stock without any fundamental, tangible change taking place. Value investors might say that stocks pumped up by share buybacks are overvalued. This process can lead to extreme valuations in stocks, as can extended periods of market euphoria.

The Takeaway

Using the intrinsic value vs market value method is best suited to a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

Stock prices can remain elevated or depressed for long periods of time depending on market conditions. Even if an investor’s analysis is spot on, there’s no way to know for sure exactly when any stock will return to its intrinsic value.

Value investors try to understand stock volatility, using these periods as opportunities for rebalancing their portfolios, selling positions that might have increased a lot while adding to positions that may have fallen far below their intrinsic value. This contrasts to short-term day trading strategies or momentum swing-trading, which primarily uses technical analysis to try and predict and profit from short-term market fluctuations.

Found a stock you think is undervalued? Try SoFi Invest®, where investors can choose any of the most popular stocks and ETFs.

Check out SoFi Invest today.


SoFi Invest®
The information provided is not meant to provide investment or financial advice. Investment decisions should be based on an individual’s specific financial needs, goals and risk profile. SoFi can’t guarantee future financial performance. Advisory services offered through SoFi Wealth, LLC. SoFi Securities, LLC, member FINRA / SIPC . The umbrella term “SoFi Invest” refers to the three investment and trading platforms operated by Social Finance, Inc. and its affiliates (described below). Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of the platforms below.
1) Automated Investing—The Automated Investing platform is owned by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC Registered Investment Advisor (“Sofi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC, an affiliated SEC registered broker dealer and member FINRA/SIPC, (“Sofi Securities).

2) Active Investing—The Active Investing platform is owned by SoFi Securities LLC. Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.

3) Digital Assets—The Digital Assets platform is owned by SoFi Digital Assets, LLC, a FinCEN registered Money Service Business.

For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above, including state licensure of Sofi Digital Assets, LLC, http://www.sofi.com/legal.

Disclaimer: The projections or other information regarding the likelihood of various investment outcomes are hypothetical in nature, do not reflect actual investment results, and are not guarantees of future results.
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Source: sofi.com

5 Tips to Hedge Against Inflation

To achieve financial freedom and grow wealth over long periods of time, it’s vital to understand the concept of inflation.

Inflation refers to the ever-increasing price of goods and services as measured against a particular currency. The purchasing power of a currency depreciates as a result of rising prices. Put differently, a rising rate of inflation equates to a decreasing value of a currency.

Inflation is most commonly measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) , which averages the national cost of many consumer items such as food, housing, healthcare, and more.

The opposite of inflation is deflation, which happens when prices fall. During deflation, cash becomes the most valuable asset because it can buy more. During inflation, other assets become more valuable than cash because it takes more currency to purchase them.

The key question to examine is: What assets perform the best during inflationary times?

Federal Reserve try to control inflation through monetary policy. Sometimes their policies can create inflation in financial assets, like quantitative easing has been said to do.

5 Tips for Hedging Against Inflation

The concept of inflation seems simple enough. But what might be some of the best ways investors can protect themselves?

There are a number of different strategies investors use to hedge against inflation. The common denominators tend to be hard assets with a limited supply and financial assets that tend to see large capital inflows during times of currency devaluation and rising prices.

Here are five tips that may help investors hedge against inflation.

1. Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)

A Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) is a company that deals in real estate, either through owning, financing, or operating a group of properties. Through buying shares of a REIT, investors can gain exposure to the assets that the company owns or manages.

REITs are income-producing assets, like dividend-yielding stocks. They pay a dividend to investors who hold shares. In fact, REITs are required by law to distribute 90% of their income to investors.

Holding REITs in a portfolio might make sense for some investors as a potential inflation hedge because they are tied to a hard asset—real estate. During times of high inflation, hard assets tend to rise in value against their local currencies because their supply is limited. There will be an ever-increasing number of dollars (or euros, or yen, etc.) chasing a fixed number of hard assets, so the price of those things will tend to go up.

Owning physical real estate—like a home, commercial complex, or rental property—also works as an inflation hedge. But most investors can’t afford to purchase or don’t care to manage such properties. Holding shares of a REIT provides a much easier way to get exposure to real estate.

2. Bonds and Equities

The recurring theme regarding inflation hedges is that the price of everything goes up. What investors are generally concerned with is choosing the assets that go up in price the fastest, with the greatest possible return.

In some cases, it might be that stocks and bonds very quickly rise very high in price. But in an economy that sees hyperinflation, those holding cash won’t see their investment, i.e., cash, have the purchasing power it may have once had.

In such a scenario, the specific securities aren’t as important as making sure that capital gets allocated to stocks or bonds in some amount, instead of holding all capital in cash.

3. Exchange-Traded Funds

An exchange-traded fund (ETF) that tracks a particular stock index or group of investment types is another way to get exposure to assets that are likely to increase in value during times of inflation and can also be a strategy to maximize diversification in an investor’s portfolio. ETFs are generally passive investments, which may make them a good fit for those who are new to investing or want to take a more hands-off approach to investing. Since they are considered a diversified investment, they may be a good hedge against inflation.

4. Gold and Gold Mining Stocks

For thousands of years, humans have used gold as a store of value. Although the price of gold can be somewhat volatile in the short term, few assets have maintained their purchasing power as well as gold in the long term. Like real estate, gold is a hard asset with limited supply.

Still, the question of “is gold a hedge against inflation?” has different answers depending on whom you ask. Some critics claim that because there are other variables involved and the price of gold doesn’t always track inflation exactly, that it is not a good inflation hedge. And there might be some circumstances under which this holds true.

During short periods of rapid inflation, however, there’s no question that the price of gold rises sharply. Consider the following:

•  During the time between 1970 and 1974, for example, the price of gold against the US dollar surged from $240 to more than $900 for a gain of 73%.
•  During and after the recession of 2007 to 2009, the price of gold doubled from less than $1,000 in November 2008, to $2,000 in August 2011.
•  In 2019 and 2020, gold has hit all-time record highs against many different fiat currencies.

Investors seeking to add gold to their portfolio have a variety of options. Physical gold coins and bars might be the most obvious example, although these are difficult to obtain and store safely.

5. Better Understanding Inflation in the Market

Ultimately, no assets are 100% protected from inflation, but some investments might be better than others for some investors. Understanding how inflation affects investments is the beginning of growing wealth over time and achieving financial goals. Still have questions about hedging investments against inflation? SoFi credentialed financial planners are available to answer questions about investments at no additional cost to members.

Downloading and using the stock trading app can be a helpful tool for investors who want to stay up to date with how their investments are doing or keeping an eye on the market in general.

Learn more about how the SoFi app can be a useful tool to reach your investment goals.



External Websites: The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.
SoFi Invest®
The information provided is not meant to provide investment or financial advice. Investment decisions should be based on an individual’s specific financial needs, goals and risk profile. SoFi can’t guarantee future financial performance. Advisory services offered through SoFi Wealth, LLC. SoFi Securities, LLC, member FINRA / SIPC . The umbrella term “SoFi Invest” refers to the three investment and trading platforms operated by Social Finance, Inc. and its affiliates (described below). Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of the platforms below.

Investment Risk: Diversification can help reduce some investment risk. It cannot guarantee profit, or fully protect in a down market.
Third Party Trademarks: Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards Inc. (CFP Board) owns the certification marks CFP®, CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER™, CFP® (with plaque design), and CFP® (with flame design) in the U.S., which it awards to individuals who successfully complete CFP Board’s initial and ongoing certification requirements.
Crypto: Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies aren’t endorsed or guaranteed by any government, are volatile, and involve a high degree of risk. Consumer protection and securities laws don’t regulate cryptocurrencies to the same degree as traditional brokerage and investment products. Research and knowledge are essential prerequisites before engaging with any cryptocurrency. US regulators, including FINRA , the SEC , and the CFPB , have issued public advisories concerning digital asset risk. Cryptocurrency purchases should not be made with funds drawn from financial products including student loans, personal loans, mortgage refinancing, savings, retirement funds or traditional investments.

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Source: sofi.com

What is a 51% Attack?

A 51% attack is when a single cryptocurrency miner or group of miners gains control of more than 50% of a network’s blockchain. Such attacks are one of the most significant threats for people who use and buy cryptocurrencies.

The 51% attack scenario is rare, largely because of the logistics, hardware and costs required to carry one out. But a successful block attack could have far-reaching consequences for the cryptocurrency market and those who invest in it.

Cryptocurrency investing can be potentially lucrative but it involves a higher degree of risk compared with stock or bond investing. If an investor is considering adding digital currencies to their portfolio, it’s important to understand the implications of a 51% attack.

Background on 51% Attacks

A 51% attack is an attack on a blockchain, which is a type of digital database in ledger form. With blockchain technology, information is collected together in groups or blocks and linked together to create a chain of data. In cryptocurrency trading, blockchain is used to record approved transfers of digital currencies and the mining of crypto coins or tokens.

With Bitcoin for example, “miners” can attempt to add blocks to the chain by solving mathematical problems through the use of a mining machine. These machines are essentially a network of computers. If miners succeed in adding a block to the chain, they receive Bitcoins in return.

The speed at which all the mining machines within the network operate is the Bitcoin hashrate. A good hashrate can help gauge the health of the network.

A 51% attack occurs when one or more miners takes control of more than 50% of a network’s mining power, computing power or hashrate. If a 51 percent attack is successful, the miners responsible essentially control the network and certain transactions that occur within it.

How a 51% Attack Works

When a cryptocurrency transaction takes place, whether it involves Bitcoin or another digital currency, newly mined blocks must be validated by a consensus of nodes or computers attached to the network. Once this validation occurs, the block can be added to the chain.

The blockchain contains a record of all transactions that anyone can view at any time. This system of record keeping is decentralized, meaning no single person or entity has control over it. Different nodes or computer systems work together to mine so the hashrate for a particular network is also decentralized.

When a majority of the hashrate is controlled by one or more miners in a 51% attack, however, the cryptocurrency network is disrupted. Those responsible for a 51% attack would then be able to:

•  Exclude new transactions from being recorded
•  Modify the ordering of transactions
•  Prevent transactions from being validated or confirmed
•  Block other miners from mining coins or tokens within the network
•  Reverse transactions to double-spend coins

All of these side effects of a block attack can be problematic for cryptocurrency investors and those who accept digital currencies as a form of payment.

For example, a double-spend scenario would allow someone to pay for something using cryptocurrency, then reverse the transaction after the fact. They’d effectively be able to keep whatever they purchased along with the cryptocurrency used in the transaction, bilking the seller.

What a 51% Attack Means for Cryptocurrency Investors

A 51% attack isn’t a common occurrence but it’s not something that can be brushed off. For cryptocurrency investors, the biggest risk associated with a 51% attack may be the devaluation of a particular digital currency.

If a cryptocurrency is subject to frequent block attacks, that could cause investors to lose confidence in the market. Such an event could cause the price of the cryptocurrency to collapse.

The good news is that there are limitations to what a miner who stages a 51% attack can do. For example, someone carrying out a block attack wouldn’t be able to:

•  Reverse transactions made by other people
•  Alter the number of coins or tokens generated by a block
•  Create new coins or tokens from nothing
•  Transact with coins or tokens that don’t belong to them

Investors may be able to insulate themselves against the possibility of a 51% percent attack by investing in larger, more established cryptocurrency networks versus smaller ones. The larger a blockchain grows, the more difficult it becomes for a rogue miners to carry out an attack on it. Smaller networks, on the other hand, may be more vulnerable to a block attack.

Is Cryptocurrency Investing a Good Idea?

Cryptocurrencies can help boost portfolio diversification, but there are certain risks to be aware of. Current cryptocurrency rules and regulations offer some protections to investors, but on the whole, the market is far less regulated than stocks, mutual funds and other securities. Here are some potential upsides and downsides of investing in digital currencies.

Pros of Cryptocurrency Investing

•  Bigger rewards. Compared with stocks and other securities, cryptocurrency investing could yield much higher returns. In 2020, for example, Bitcoin surged 159% higher.
•  Liquidity. Liquidity measures how easily an asset can be converted to cash or its equivalent. Popular cryptocurrencies like bitcoin are more liquid assets, which may appeal to investors focused on short-term trading strategies.
•  Transparency. Blockchain networks offer virtually complete transparency to investors, as new transactions are on record for everyone to see. That can make cryptocurrency a much more straightforward investment compared with more opaque investments like a hedge fund or a real estate investment trust (REIT).

Cons of Cryptocurrency Investing

•  Volatility. Cryptocurrencies can be extremely volatile, with wide fluctuations in price movements. That volatility could put an investor at greater risk of losing money on digital currency investments.
•  Difficult to understand. Learning the ins and outs of cryptocurrency trading, blockchain technology, and digital coin mining can be more complicated than learning how a stock, ETF or index fund works. That could lessen its appeal for a newer investor who’s just learning the market.
•  Not hands-off. If an investor is leaning towards a passive investment strategy, cryptocurrency may not be the best fit. Trading cryptocurrencies generally focuses on the short-term, making it more suited for active traders.

If an investor is still on the fence, they can consider taking SoFi’s crypto quiz to determine how much they already know about this market.

The Takeaway

Cryptocurrency investing may appeal to an investor if they’re comfortable taking more risk to pursue higher returns. If an investor is new to cryptocurrency trading, the prospect of a 51% attack might seem intimidating. Understanding how they work and the likelihood of one occurring can help them feel more confident.

If an investor is ready to start trading Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin, SoFi Invest can help. Members can trade cryptocurrencies 24/7, starting with as little as $10. The SoFi app allows users to manage their account from anywhere.


SoFi Invest®
The information provided is not meant to provide investment or financial advice. Investment decisions should be based on an individual’s specific financial needs, goals and risk profile. SoFi can’t guarantee future financial performance. Advisory services offered through SoFi Wealth, LLC. SoFi Securities, LLC, member FINRA / SIPC . The umbrella term “SoFi Invest” refers to the three investment and trading platforms operated by Social Finance, Inc. and its affiliates (described below). Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of the platforms below.
1) Automated Investing—The Automated Investing platform is owned by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC Registered Investment Advisor (“Sofi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC, an affiliated SEC registered broker dealer and member FINRA/SIPC, (“Sofi Securities).

2) Active Investing—The Active Investing platform is owned by SoFi Securities LLC. Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.

3) Digital Assets—The Digital Assets platform is owned by SoFi Digital Assets, LLC, a FinCEN registered Money Service Business.

For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above, including state licensure of Sofi Digital Assets, LLC, http://www.sofi.com/legal.

Crypto: Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies aren’t endorsed or guaranteed by any government, are volatile, and involve a high degree of risk. Consumer protection and securities laws don’t regulate cryptocurrencies to the same degree as traditional brokerage and investment products. Research and knowledge are essential prerequisites before engaging with any cryptocurrency. US regulators, including FINRA , the SEC , and the CFPB , have issued public advisories concerning digital asset risk. Cryptocurrency purchases should not be made with funds drawn from financial products including student loans, personal loans, mortgage refinancing, savings, retirement funds or traditional investments.
Investment Risk: Diversification can help reduce some investment risk. It cannot guarantee profit, or fully protect in a down market.
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Source: sofi.com

Tips for Taking Online Classes Successfully

A new semester is usually a fresh opportunity to collaborate and hobnob, but 2020 and beyond will be remembered as the time when learning largely went online.

As the coronavirus pandemic caused an increasing number of colleges to abandon or delay plans to open campuses, a scramble to adapt ensued.

But adapt everyone must. Welcome to the epic socially distant epoch of higher education. Can a collegian still thrive? Yes. A student can learn how to be successful in online classes.

Types of Online Classes

When trying to come up with a plan for not just taking but succeeding with online classes, the first step is to determine whether classes will be fully remote or a hybrid.

Hybrid Approach

A hybrid course is a mix of in-person instruction and remote learning. The exact schedule will vary by school, class, and instructor but may include several hours of live or prerecorded virtual learning per week with one in-person session.

For example, a chemistry course could include virtual learning and in-person lab work.

Hybrid courses offer the benefits of remote learning without fully abandoning in-person instruction, making it a prime choice for students concerned that online classes may not meet their needs.

Exclusively Virtual

Classes that are all virtual never meet in person. Instruction is given through live webinars, prerecorded video, and physical or digital material.

Depending on the format of the course, students can fit sessions into their schedule as they see fit, an option not provided by a hybrid or traditional class.

Benefits and Potential Pitfalls of Virtual Courses

While virtual learning is ideal for some students, it may be frustrating for others. Some degrees may not lend themselves to a virtual experience either. But for students who have taken the plunge into online learning, there are several benefits to talk about.

Pros of Online Courses

Flexibility. The ability to learn whenever and wherever is a priceless advantage for a student with a hectic schedule. Though there are still deadlines and due dates to abide by, learning can typically take place around work, social commitments, and personal preferences. While some courses may include live remote sessions, they’re typically recorded and available for preoccupied students to view at a later time.

Real-life experience. Online courses tend to put more responsibility on the student. Learning how to prioritize instruction in a flexible schedule can help prepare students for careers.

Potential savings. If a course was designed to be taught in person but has recently been adapted for online instruction, a discount may not be available.

But for courses originally built for virtual learning, students often find they can save on the average credit cost. An online degree also could have condensed schedules available, allowing a student to get through the courses faster.

There are other savings to consider. With online instruction, students don’t have to worry about paying for parking, gas, or lunch on the go (and there are ways to thrive as a commuter student).

If virtual learners can pursue an education while working full or part time, an option not always available to students bogged down by a schedule of in-person classes, they may be able to curb student loan debt.

Potential Cons of Online Courses

Minimal social benefits. One concern students might have when taking online classes is the lack of personal interaction. While some simply respond better to in-person learning, others worry that questions won’t be addressed as promptly or thoroughly in an online setting. Other students are motivated by interactions with fellow students and find themselves struggling to concentrate when learning virtually.

A lack of professional networking. Students often discover opportunities to build relationships with professors and assistants that can lead to careers. Virtual learning makes these relationships more difficult to find and develop.

Scheduling conflicts. While the flexibility of online classes is appealing to most, it can create scheduling conflicts. If students are challenged by time management, they may find themselves procrastinating and struggling to manage their workload and deadlines.

Tips for Online Classes

Here are some words to the wise for taking online courses, for both newbies and experienced virtual students.

•  Respect the course. Do you suspect that an online course has less value than in-person instruction? The educational value is the same. It’s just being delivered in a different fashion.
•  Think about time management. Even experienced virtual students can improve their time management skills. Review the syllabus at the start of the semester, note major assignments, and look for potential conflicts.
•  Try to avoid distractions. When taking online courses, it might be best not to set up in front of the TV, as tempting as it may be. Consider cobbling together a home office that blocks distractions and creates a productive environment.
•  Participate. While an online class can be an introvert’s dream, there are still opportunities to participate. Many online courses offer a forum for students and instructors to discuss course materials, comment on one another’s work, and ask questions as needed.

Funding the Virtual Voyage

Even though some online classes are more affordable than their in-person variations, tuition costs may cause a bit of sticker shock. Consider the following options when determining how to pay for virtual classes, keeping in mind that certain institutions may have rules limiting payment methods.

Federal Loans

By filling out the FAFSA®, approved students can obtain federal funding for their education. Known for low and fixed rates, federal student loans don’t typically require payments to begin until graduation.

Private Loans

With a good credit rating and a little patience, students can find private student loans through private lenders, if needed. Though they often come with repayment plans that start right away, they are an option for students denied federal aid or whose costs are not completely covered by federal aid.

Federal student loans offer benefits that don’t typically accompany private loans. It’s generally thought that students and parents should exhaust federal student loan options before considering private loans.

Paying à la Carte

Online courses are designed to fit a working student’s schedule (though being employed certainly isn’t a requirement). Many students who enjoy online classes take them as they’re financially able, paying for them with their own money at the time payment is due, either upfront or through a college’s payment plan.

During this time of great adjustment, don’t let finances become another worry. Consider a private student loan from SoFi to jumpstart the virtual college experience.

Many students have found SoFi Private Student Loans to be affordable and convenient, thanks to flexible repayment options and no fees—no origination fees, late fees, or insufficient-funds fees.

A private loan can cover up to 100% of the cost of school-certified attendance, both for in-person and online courses. A SoFi Private Student Loan can help cover additional costs after federal aid or become a lifeline for those denied government assistance.

Interested in a private student loan? Apply for one with SoFi today.



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Please borrow responsibly. SoFi Private Student Loans are not a substitute for federal loans, grants, and work-study programs. You should exhaust all your federal student aid options before you consider any private loans, including ours. Read our FAQs.
SoFi Private Student Loans are subject to program terms and restrictions, and applicants must meet SoFi’s eligibility and underwriting requirements. See SoFi.com/eligibility for more information. To view payment examples, click here. SoFi reserves the right to modify eligibility criteria at any time. This information is subject to change. SoFi Lending Corp. and its lending products are not endorsed by or directly affiliated with any college or university unless otherwise disclosed.

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SoFi loans are originated by SoFi Lending Corp (dba SoFi), a lender licensed by the Department of Financial Protection and Innovation under the California Financing Law, license # 6054612; NMLS # 1121636 . For additional product-specific legal and licensing information, see SoFi.com/legal.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

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Source: sofi.com

What Investors Should Know About Spread

When trading stocks, there are several market terms that are helpful to understand, such as portfolio, dividend, and volatility. Another key term to know is spread.

In simple terms, a spread represents the difference between any two financial metrics. The type of spread depends on the type of security that’s being traded. For example, when trading bonds, the spread can refer to a difference in yields between bonds of varying maturity lengths or quality.

But there are many differences between bonds vs. stocks—and spread is one of them. With stocks, spread refers to differences in price. Specifically, it measures the gap between the bid price and the ask price. Understanding what is spread and how it works can help you more effectively shape your investment strategy.

What Is Spread?

buying a home. As a home buyer, you may have a set price that you’re willing to pay for a property, based on what you can afford and what you’ve been pre-approved for by your mortgage lender.

You search for homes and eventually find one that has everything on your wishlist. When you check the listing price, you see that the seller has it priced $10,000 above your budget. In terms of spread, the maximum amount you’re willing to offer for the home represents the bid price, while the seller’s listing price represents the ask.

What Does Spread Mean?

Aside from stock spread, spread can have a variety of applications and meanings in the financial world.

As mentioned earlier, bond spread typically refers to differences in yield. But if you’re trading futures, the spread can measure the gap between buy and sell positions for a particular commodity. With options trading, it can refer to differences in strike prices when placing call or put options.

Spread can also be used in foreign currency markets or forex (foreign exchange market) trades to represent the difference between the costs for traders and the profits realized by dealers.

With lending, spread is tied to a difference in interest rates. Specifically, it means the difference between a benchmark rate, such as the prime rate, and the rate that’s actually charged to a borrower. So for example, if you’re getting a mortgage there might be a 2% spread, meaning your rate is 2% higher than the benchmark rate.

Bid-Ask Price and Stocks Spread

If you trade stocks online, it’s important to understand how the bid-ask price spread works and how it can affect your investment outcomes. Since spread can help gauge supply and demand for a particular stock, investors can use that information to make informed decisions about trades and increase the odds of getting the best possible price.

Limit orders. This is an order to buy or sell a security at a certain price or better.
•  Stop orders. A stop order, also called a stop-loss order, is an order to buy or sell a security once it hits a certain price. This is called the stop price and once that price is reached, the order is executed.
•  Buy stop orders. Buy stop orders are used to execute buy orders only when the market reaches a certain stop price.
•  Sell stop orders. A sell stop order is the opposite of a buy stop order. Sell stop orders are executed when the stop price falls below the current market price of a security.

Stop orders can help with limiting losses in your investment portfolio if you’re trading based on bid-ask price spreads. Knowing how to coordinate various types of orders together with stock spreads can help with getting the best possible price as you make trades.

The Takeaway

The more investing terms an investor is familiar with, the better able they’ll be to invest with confidence. Spread is a term that means different things in different situations, but when it comes to stocks, spread is the difference between the bid price and ask price of a given stock. Being able to assess what a spread might mean can help inform individual trading decisions.

As you learn more about stocks, including what is spread and how it works, you can use that knowledge to create a portfolio that reflects your financial needs and goals.

SoFi Invest® makes it easy to get started with stock trading and investing. Members can choose which stocks to buy or sell, based on their investment objectives and risk tolerance, and purchase shares in some of the market’s biggest companies through fractional share investing with Stock Bits.

Find out how SoFi Invest can help you reach your financial goals.


SoFi Invest®
The information provided is not meant to provide investment or financial advice. Investment decisions should be based on an individual’s specific financial needs, goals and risk profile. SoFi can’t guarantee future financial performance. Advisory services offered through SoFi Wealth, LLC. SoFi Securities, LLC, member FINRA / SIPC . The umbrella term “SoFi Invest” refers to the three investment and trading platforms operated by Social Finance, Inc. and its affiliates (described below). Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of the platforms below.
1) Automated Investing—The Automated Investing platform is owned by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC Registered Investment Advisor (“Sofi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC, an affiliated SEC registered broker dealer and member FINRA/SIPC, (“Sofi Securities).

2) Active Investing—The Active Investing platform is owned by SoFi Securities LLC. Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.

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For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above, including state licensure of Sofi Digital Assets, LLC, http://www.sofi.com/legal.

Stock Bits
Stock Bits is a brand name of the fractional trading program offered by SoFi Securities LLC. When making a fractional trade, you are granting SoFi Securities discretion to determine the time and price of the trade. Fractional trades will be executed in our next trading window, which may be several hours or days after placing an order. The execution price may be higher or lower than it was at the time the order was placed.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

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Source: sofi.com

7 Tips for Maintaining the Value of Your Home

Before signing the dotted line for a new home, your real estate agent might point out features about the property that could be “good for resale value.” And while you may be in the market for your forever home, the unexpected twists and turns of life mean that people sell their homes for a million reasons.

For homebuyers who are in the market for a smart investment, selling their home when the time is right is the objective from Day One. They may anticipate the future of an up-and-coming neighborhood, get a killer deal on a short sale or foreclosure, or intend to upgrade once they grow their families.

For others, a move can be unexpected. Issues like financial changes (for better or worse), job transfers, unexpected bills, marriage or divorce, or the need for more or less space can all motivate homeowners to sell.

And for a few, they just realize that the house they bought isn’t right for them.

In fact, Americans move every five to seven years on average. (Apparently, we’re a restless lot.)

No matter what your future plans are for your home, doing what you can to maintain its value can be a smart strategy. And while some value-add items take care of themselves, like the property’s location and the current real estate market, the majority are up to the homeowners.

And let’s be real. When it comes to working on a home, a little work here and there is a lot less painful than a lot of work on a moment’s notice.

Here are some ideas for creating a home maintenance checklist:

Update, Update, Update.

If a home that’s for sale has an updated anything, the real estate listing will scream it out in ALL CAPS. This can apply to appliances, cabinetry and countertops, flooring, popcorn ceiling, bathroom remodels, kitchen remodels, and more.

But which updates will actually add value to the house is a different question, and the answer can vary depending on current trends. In 2020, for example, home buyers are looking for large, spacious kitchens and, thanks to COVID-19, a home office space.

If your kitchen is due for an update, try to keep in mind that this doesn’t necessarily mean stripping it to the studs and starting from scratch. Are the cabinets in good shape? Consider a fresh coat of paint or stain to reflect the latest color trends.

value estimator could help inform your decision.

Keeping an Eye on the Big Ticket Items

Repainting to cover wall damage or update to a more modern color is a project that may not take too much time or money out of your budget.

Repairing or replacing a home’s expensive items, like the foundation, roof, electrical, plumbing, water, septic, well, A/C—can come with some serious sticker shock.

Issues with a home’s foundation, for example, can cost upwards of $10,000 to remedy. But a foundation inspection? That’s more like $350 to $1,000 . And keeping an eye on the foundation and walls yourself is free. Note that estimates will vary based on factors like location, the size of the house, and the extent of repairs required.

Aside from the foundation, replacing a home’s central heating and air system can be a significant expense that can also cost five figures to replace in the event of a total failure. The biggest contributor? According to an article on Realtor.com, it’s neglect .

Regular maintenance can help extend the life of the system so it can reach it’s full life expectancy—which is generally about 15 years.

Staying On Top of Maintenance

According to HomeAdvisor’s State of Home Spending Report , the average homeowner spent $1,105 a year on maintenance in 2018. That sounds like a lot, but when compared to the average cost of $7,560 for home improvement projects in 2018, it starts to sound more affordable.

What’s more, the report found that homeowners completed an average of 6.7 home maintenance projects vs. just 2.2 home improvement projects.

For their study, they listed items like HVAC maintenance, cleaning gutters, and landscaping as maintenance-related projects, but the list can also include keeping up with the pool or hot tub, power washing siding, decking, or concrete areas.

If it seems like a lot to remember, consider setting reminders on your smartphone for things like replacing A/C filters, having carpets professionally cleaned, or flushing out the hot tub.

You may also consider adding a line item into your budget for maintenance items, since these are normal costs of owning a home and it can help to plan for them.

Improving Curb Appeal

If there’s a “For Sale” sign in front of your house, the outside will be the first thing a potential homebuyer judges about your property. If not, the way your home looks as visitors arrive still makes a statement.

To evaluate the outside of your home, look at it from a visitor’s perspective. Is the grass trim? Are the weeds under control? Consider taking a look at the driveway, mailbox, and front porch area and asking yourself, if you were thinking about purchasing this home, would you be interested based on the curb appeal?

If the answer is no, it doesn’t mean you have to dig into the dirt. An affordable landscaper can help if your home is lush with vegetation, invest in mulch to help keep weeds under control, and consider native plants and shrubbery that require the least maintenance.

Another item that deserves attention is your front door. It creates a statement about your home, serves as a welcome to visitors and, if it’s steel, comes with an amazing return on investment—as much as 91% of the costs, which average around $1,500.

Upgrading Energy Efficiency

89% of homebuyers report wanting to see efficient windows and appliances in a home), but also if you want to reduce spending on bills and taxes . And it doesn’t just mean big investments like switching to solar or wind-powered energy, although those are both growing trends .

Making your home more energy efficient can also be as simple as replacing bad weather seals, ensuring that the attic has sufficient insulation, paying attention to the air and heating, and using energy-efficient light bulbs and appliances.

Upgrading the energy efficiency of your home is something that might even be rolled in with another project, such as maintenance or updating.

Installing Smart Tech

Even if your home is more than 100 years, old adding smart tech can make it 21st-century ready. Smart home assistants like Google or Alexa, for example, can control everything from the lights to the TV to locking the front door.

They can also allow you to remotely control your heating and air temperatures, make sure the oven is actually turned off, and even give you a sense of security with security systems or video door bells. In order for the home assistants to accomplish all of these features, additional smart appliances may be required.

While some types of home tech are hard-wired into the house and others are more portable, even being able to say “wired for surround sound” can be a bonus on a home listing.

According to a recent Forbes report, smart home tech is starting to move up the must-have list for homebuyers. But, like energy efficiencies, adding it to your home can be a perk even if you have no immediate plans to move.

Keeping the Bugs at Bay

One important job that comes with homeownership is keeping unwanted critters outside where they belong. Public enemy No. 1 in this category? Termites. They can wreak havoc on a home’s wood structures to the tune of $1 billion in property damage every year.

The problem is so widespread that some home loan companies require buyers to get a termite letter , which is basically a guarantee that the home is free from termite damage.

DIY recommendations for keeping the pests at bay can also check off items on the home maintenance list, including keeping gutters and downspouts flowing, filling in any places where water pools around the home or in the yard, filling in cracks in the foundation and keeping air vets free and clear.

And if an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, then a $75 to $150 termite inspection is worth avoiding a $1,000 termite treatment.

Beyond termites and the havoc they wreak, there are a variety of other living creatures that can cause damage to a home or surrounding property, including attic squatters like mice or raccoons, carpenter bees, moles, mosquitoes, and even grasshoppers that brunch on beautiful landscaping.

Making Improvements Affordable

Budgeting a few extra dollars a month for A/C filters is one thing, but putting on a new roof is a bigger beast. Before going down the path of home improvement, it can be important to determine whether the goal is to add resale value, or something that’s just a personal desire. If it’s the former, consider using a Home Project Value Estimator that can help determine whether it’s a smart investment, or if it might be wiser to take a different route.

From there, one next step could be to weigh the various options for paying for a home project. Some companies offer same-as-cash financing options, or deferred-interest loans , but in those cases it’s important to remember that if the balance isn’t paid by the deadline, it could lead to a payment that includes any leftover balance plus interest.

One way to avoid deferred-interest surprises is with a personal loan. Securing a low interest rate and a fixed monthly payment can mean no surprises, less hassle, and maybe even enough to hire an expert for the heavy lifting.

Ready to bring back or improve the value of your home? With SoFi’s Home Improvement Loans, qualifying borrows can get approved for up to $100,000.

Apply for a SoFi home improvement loan today!



Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.
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Source: sofi.com