5/1 ARM vs. the 30-Year Fixed : Pros and Cons

Last updated on August 4th, 2020

Here we go again…it’s that special time where I compare two popular home loan programs to see how they stack up against each other. Today’s match-up: “5/1 ARM vs. 30-year fixed.”

Everyone has heard of the 30-year fixed-rate mortgage – it’s far and away the most popular type of mortgage loan out there. Why? Because it’s the easiest to understand and presents no risk of adjusting during the entire loan term.

It’s basically the default home loan option whenever mortgage lenders advertise interest rates, and the pre-selected option when using a mortgage calculator.

But what about the 5/1 ARM? Do you even know what a 5/1 ARM is? What the heck is that slash doing there!? This looks confusing…calm down, we’ll get through it.

5/1 ARM vs 30-Year Fixed

Jump to 5/1 ARM topics:

– What Is a 5/1 ARM?
– 5/1 ARM Mortgage Rates
– 5/1 ARM Example
– 5/1 ARMs Will Likely Adjust Higher
– Is a 5/1 ARM a Good Idea?
– Pros and Cons of 5/1 ARMs
– 5/1 ARM FAQ

What Is a 5/1 ARM?

5/1 ARM

  • It’s an adjustable-rate mortgage with a 30-year term
  • The interest rate is fixed (does not change) for the first five years
  • And adjustable (the rate can rise or fall) during the remaining 25 years
  • It adjusts once each year after the first five years

Simply put, a 5/1 ARM is an adjustable-rate mortgage with a 30-year loan term that has a fixed interest rate for the first five years and an adjustable interest rate for the remaining 25 years.

So during years one through five, the interest rate never changes. If it starts at 4%, it remains at 4% for 60 months. Nothing to worry about there.

But after the first five years are up, the interest rate can adjust once annually, either up or down. That’s where the “1” comes in, as in one adjustment per year.

This means it’s a hybrid ARM – partially fixed, and partially adjustable.

Whew! There you have it, the 5/1 ARM broken down into simple terms we can all understand. Oh, and don’t get hung up on that pesky slash.

While not as popular as the 30-year fixed, it’s a pretty popular adjustable-rate mortgage product, if not the most popular. And as such, just about all mortgage lenders offer it.

It’s an option for conventional loans, FHA loans, and VA loans (but not USDA loans). So you won’t have any trouble finding it. This should make comparison shopping quite easy too.

5/1 ARM Mortgage Rates Are Lower. That’s the Draw

30 vs 5/1 rates

  • 5/1 ARM mortgage rates are cheaper than comparable 30-year fixed rates
  • Because your rate is only fixed for a short period of time
  • And can increase significantly once it becomes adjustable
  • The discount might range from .25% to 1%+ over time

The biggest advantage to the 5/1 ARM is the fact that you get a lower mortgage rate than you would if you opted for a traditional 30-year fixed.

You get a discount because your interest rate isn’t fixed, and is at risk of rising once the initial five-year period comes to an end. Of course, if you refinance your mortgage at that time you can avoid the rate changing.

As you can see from the chart I created above, the 5/1 ARM is always cheaper than the 30-year fixed. That’s the trade-off for that lack of mortgage rate stability.

But how much lower are 5/1 ARM rates? Currently, the spread is 0.55%, with the 30-year averaging 4.45 percent and the 5/1 ARM coming in at 3.90 percent, per Freddie Mac data.

Since Freddie began tracking the five-year ARM back in 2005, the spread has been as small as 0.27% and as large as 1.30% in 2011.

If the spread were only 0.25%, it’d be hard to rationalize going with the uncertainty of the ARM. Conversely, if the spread were a full percentage point or higher, it’d be pretty tempting to choose the ARM and save money for at least 60 months.

The Freddie Mac survey only covers conforming loans. The spread might be different for jumbo loans, depending on market conditions. And it may also be significantly understated.

Either way, take the time to compare lenders since rates (and loan payments) can vary considerably, just like fixed interest rates.

Let’s look at an example of the potential savings of a 5/1 ARM:

$300,000 Loan Amount 5/1 ARM 30-Year Fixed
Mortgage Rate 3.5% 4.5%
Monthly P&I Payment $1,347.13 $1,520.06
Total Cost Over 60 Months $80,827.80 $91,203.60
Remaining Balance After 60 Months $269,091.53 $273,473.41
Total Savings $14,757.68

Assuming you can snag a 1% lower rate on the ARM vs. the fixed product, you could potentially save nearly $15,000 over the first five years, not taking into account tax deductions.

That’s a pretty big win, though you do have to consider what happens in month 61. Does the rate (and payment) on the ARM jump significantly at that time, and begin eating into those initial savings?

Or do you have a plan to avoid that, such as a home sale or refinance? As you can see, the savings can be tremendous, but there’s risk involved too as we won’t know where rates will be five years into the future.

This lower-payment mortgage may also free up cash to pay off credit card debt, student loans, an auto loan, or any other higher-APR debt you hold, or for home improvements.

You’d also pay down your mortgage faster because more of each payment would go toward principal as opposed to interest.

So you actually benefit twice. You pay less and your mortgage balance is smaller after five years (more home equity and a higher net worth).

After five years, the outstanding balance would be $273,473.41 versus $269,091.53 on the five-year ARM. That’s another $4,400 or so in savings for a total benefit of nearly $15,000.

Discussion over, the ARM wins! Right? Well, there’s just one little problem…

It might not always be this good. In fact, you might only save money for the first five years of your 30-year loan.

After those initial five years are up, you could face an interest rate hike, meaning your 5/1 ARM could go from 3.50% to 4.50% or higher, depending on the associated margin, the rate caps, and the mortgage index.

And most importantly, the adjusted rate may not be affordable, which can lead to a lot of trouble.

5/1 ARMs Are Cheap But Will Likely Adjust Higher

  • While the start rate on a 5/1 ARM can be enticing
  • Expect the rate to be higher in year six and beyond
  • Since ARMs typically adjust higher, not lower
  • But if you only keep it for a short time it can be a big money-saver

Currently, both ARMs and mortgage indexes are super low, but they’re expected to rise in coming years as the economy gets back on track, which it will eventually.

And you should always prepare for a higher interest rate adjustment if you’ve got an ARM.

In fact, during the loan application process mortgage lenders typically qualify you at a higher expected rate to ensure you can make more expensive mortgage payments in the future should your ARM adjust higher.

To that end, qualifying shouldn’t be any easier relative to fixed-rate mortgages.

So that’s the big risk with the 5/1 ARM. If you don’t plan to sell or refinance before those first five years are up, the 30-year fixed may be the better choice.

Although, if you sell or refinance your mortgage within say seven or eight years, the 5/1 ARM could still make sense given the savings realized during the first five years. And most people either sell or refinance within 10 years despite taking out fixed loans with 30-year terms.

The big question is where will refinance rates be when it comes time to make your move? And home prices.

If you came in with a low down payment and home values drop and it’s difficult or impossible to refinance, you could be trapped if you don’t sell your home. That’s the great unknown of going with an ARM – and trying to time the real estate market is nearly impossible.

Is a 5/1 ARM a Good Idea?

  • It really depends on what your plan is for the property
  • If you know you won’t keep it for five years it could be a no-brainer to save money
  • But if you plan on keeping your home for the long-haul and interest rates rise
  • There’s a chance it could cost you more money if your rate adjusts significantly higher

If you do decide to go with a 5/1 ARM, or any ARM for that matter, make sure you can actually handle a larger monthly mortgage payment should your rate adjust higher. Paying the mortgage with your credit card isn’t a good strategy.

Also realize that refinancing won’t always be an option; you may not qualify if your credit score goes down or your income takes a hit, or refinance rates may be too expensive to justify a refi. It’s never a guarantee.

If you actually plan to pay off your mortgage, an ARM loan could be a bad idea unless you seriously luck out with rate adjustments. Or you serially refinance before the ARM adjusts and pay extra each month to shorten the amortization period.

Otherwise, there’s a good chance you’ll pay a lot more than you would have had you gone with the 30-year fixed rate mortgage.

Why? Because each time you refinance to another ARM, you’re getting a brand new 30-year term. That means more interest is paid over a longer period of time, even if the rate is lower. If you don’t believe that, grab a mortgage calculator and do the math.

However, if you’re a savvy investor and have a healthy risk-appetite, the 5/1 ARM could mean some serious savings, despite the potential of the rate changing, especially if the extra money is invested somewhere else with a better return for your money.

Just know what you’re getting into first with this loan type and how high the rate can climb during the life of the loan.

Your financial advisor probably won’t recommend it, but that doesn’t mean it’s not a good deal. In reality, a ton of home buyers could probably benefit from an ARM because they don’t hold their mortgages for more than a few years anyway. So why pay more?

Five years not enough for you? Check out the 30-year fixed vs. the 7-year ARM, which provides another two years of interest rate stability compared to the 5/1 ARM. The rate may not be as low, but you’ll get a little more time before that first rate adjustment.

Or go the other way and check out the 3/1 ARM, which gives you two less years of fixed-rate goodness but might come with a slightly lower interest rate.

Pros and Cons of 5/1 ARMs

The Good:

  • Cheaper than 30-year fixed mortgages
  • Interest rate won’t change for a full 60 months
  • Rate can adjust lower or not at all
  • Might be able to refinance or sell before it adjusts higher
  • Could be a good choice if you have bad credit and want a lower rate
  • Can switch loan products once you’re more financially fit and have excellent credit

The Potential Bad:

  • The interest rate can adjust much higher
  • Five years can go by very quickly
  • Housing payments may become unaffordable
  • No guarantee you can sell your home or refinance before that time
  • Might cost you more money vs. taking a slightly higher fixed rate at the outset
  • Could actually be harder to qualify depending on what rate is used (fully indexed rate or the note rate)

5/1 ARM FAQ

How much cheaper is the 5/1 ARM vs. the 30-year fixed?

As noted above, it depends on the spread between the two loan programs at the time you apply for a mortgage.

It can be quite minimal, just 0.25%, or more than 1% lower, depending on the interest rate environment and the lender in question. It’s very important to know the spread to determine if it’s worth the risk.

Is the 5/1 ARM due in full in just five years?

No, the five-year part just refers to the amount of time the interest rate is fixed. It’s still a 30-year loan. The rate doesn’t change during the first five years, but is annually adjustable for the remaining 25 years.

Can I get a 5-year mortgage?

I haven’t heard of a home loan with a term as short as five years, but that’s not to say it doesn’t exist, somewhere…

However, you can get a 10-year fixed, or simply pay extra each month to effectively pay off your loan in five years or less, if you wish.

What happens when the first five years are up on my 5/1 ARM?

Your interest rate will become adjustable, based on the lender-assigned margin and the mortgage index it’s tied to.

At that time, you can do nothing and simply accept the new fully-indexed rate (and corresponding monthly payment), or refinance your loan into something new. Some homeowners may sell before the five years are up as well.

Can a 5/1 ARM be refinanced?

Yes, assuming you qualify for the refinance. You can start with an ARM and move into a fixed-rate mortgage later, or go from an ARM to another ARM if you wish.

Can I get another 5/1 ARM after the first five years are up?

You sure can, again, assuming you qualify. Of course, you have to consider if rates are favorable at that time to do so. Also note that you’ll restart the clock with a fresh 30-year term if you do.

Can you pay off a 5/1 ARM early?

Like any other mortgage, you can pay more than the amount due and whittle down your outstanding balance and loan term.

It could even be a good idea if you want a lower balance at the time your loan is first scheduled to adjust. For example, the smaller balance might make it easier/cheaper to refinance thanks to a lower LTV.

Is this a risky loan program? Should I just stick with a 30-year fixed?

This is an age-old question that can’t be answered universally. For someone who plans to pay off their mortgage in full, a fixed-rate loan might be a better call.

Conversely, if you plan to sell or refinance in a relatively short period of time, the 5/1 ARM can be a real money-saver. The key is having a plan and knowing the risks involved, namely that the rate can increase, sometimes significantly.

Source: thetruthaboutmortgage.com

How to Create Passive Income with Real Estate

Last Updated on July 5, 2020 by Mark Ferguson

I love passive income because it is money that you make without working. Examples of passive income are cash flow from rental properties, stock dividends, interest from loans, royalties, money from businesses, or other investments that you are not spending time on. A lot of people will argue that there is no true passive income because it takes some amount of work to create any type of passive income. Even the kid who inherits a billion dollars must do some work to not completely piss off their parents and become disowned. I agree that almost all passive income takes some work, but I still think the idea of passive income exists. To me, passive income is an investment or business that might take some front end work to set up, but once it is running, there is little to no work needed to keep the money coming in.

The great thing about passive income is it reduces stress because you know you don’t have to work all the time, it can allow you to be more aggressive with investments or business because you have something to fall back on, and it can help you live the lifestyle you want because you don’t have to worry about running out of money.

Why is passive income important?

A lot of people think someone is rich based on how much money they make per year. That is one way to judge if someone is rich, but if they lose their job, are they still rich? Did they have investments, or were they totally dependent on that income?

I think of someone as rich when they don’t have to work and can still live the lifestyle they want to live. They may continue to work because they love it or need a challenge, but they have passive income coming in that will pay for all of their expenses and then some.

I made a lot of money as a real estate agent selling foreclosures from 2007 to 2013. While I was making a lot of money, I was also stressed out. I did not have as much money in my bank accounts as I thought I should have. I was spending a lot, and things always cost more than you think they should. I knew I had to invest my money better, and I did by purchasing rental properties. I started to have passive income come into my accounts without working! Just the thought that my hard-earned money was now making me more money instead of wasting away reduced my stress. It also gave me the confidence to pursue my goals and more aggressive strategies because I had a safety net of passive income.

I also knew that if I built enough passive income, I would not have to work anymore. I could essentially retire knowing I would have a certain amount of money coming in every month, and that money would increase with inflation. I also knew that if I got sick or lost my income, I had money coming in to keep me going. It was not the end of the world.

When I have passive income, I do not have to worry about getting sick, missing work, or going on vacation.

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Why did I choose real estate?

I looked at many businesses and investments before choosing real estate. Yes, I was a real estate agent, and it may seem like the obvious choice, but I purchased my first rental property in 2010 right during the housing crash. Most real estate agents told me I was digging my own grave investing in rental properties.

I researched every investment I could because it was my money, and I wanted to make it grow as fast as possible. I did not want to take the easy way out. Real estate kept coming back as the number one choice for a number of reasons:

Cash flow

With every good rental property you buy, it should bring in a decent amount of cash flow or profit each month. I was seeing properties that would make me around a 15% cash-on-cash returns. That was a great return and really caught my eye.

Leverage

The cash-on-cash return is high on rental properties because you can leverage real estate fairly easily. That means I can get a loan for most of the purchase price. When buying an owner-occupied house, I can put as little as nothing down! On investment properties, you usually need at least 20% down, and that is what I was basing my 15% cash-on-cash return on. By using leverage, it increases your returns on the right properties.

Tax advantages

Real estate has some amazing tax advantages, like the tax-free gain on a personal house or the ability to depreciate a rental property. You can also sell a rental tax-free using a 1031 exchange or using an opportunity zone.

Buying below market

Another huge advantage to real estate is that you can buy properties below market value. A house could be worth $100,000, and I can buy that house for $60,000. It may need some work or none at all. It is not easy to find deals like that, but it is possible and a massive advantage when it comes to building wealth.

Is real estate really passive?

I hear all the time how people do not want to be real estate investors because they don’t want calls from the tenants at 2 .m. or they do not want to change out toilets. Guess what: I don’t want those things either, and I do not have to do those things. I have a property manager who handles all of that, and it leaves me time to do other more profitable things. Once I get a property set up, it is very passive.

While it is passive owning rentals after they are set up, it takes some time on the front end. I have to find the deal, which takes time. I might have to have repairs made to get the property rent ready, and I need to get financing lined up. All of these tasks take time. Once the property is ready to rent, I can hand it over to a property manager. In some cases, you may be able to find a property manager that will handle many of those things for you.

I will admit that using real estate for passive income can be more time consuming than investing in stocks or other investments. The reason I love real estate is that I make more money than investing in those asset classes because of the advantages I listed above.

How did passive income change my life?

I made a lot of money in real estate, but I felt stressed because no matter how much I made, I did not have much to show for it. When I bought rentals, I created instant net worth and passive income that would always be coming in. In fact, passive income allowed me to buy many things that I am passionate about, the big ones being exotic cars.

In 2014 ,I bought a Lamborghini Diablo, which had been a dream of mine since I was a kid. I felt comfortable buying the car because I had more than $5,000 a month coming in from rentals. That $5,000 a month was not enough for me to live on, but it provided a safety net, and coupled with my income, it allowed me to buy a dream and not feel bad about it. The car was well worth it and has helped my business in many ways, as well as doubling in value since I have owned it! I have since bought a few more cars: 1981 Aston Martin V8, 1998 Lotus Esprit V8, 1994 Supra 6 speed twin-turbo, and I had a couple of other cools ones before I bought the Diablo.

Conclusion

The great thing about passive income is that you make money when you sleep. I don’t have to constantly struggle to bring money in. My money works for me by making more money. If I keep investing that money I make, then the passive income grows and turns into a snowball that gets bigger and bigger. It can be tough saving the money to invest, and finding the right investments, but the effort is worth it!

Source: investfourmore.com

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Good Financial Cents, and author of the personal finance book Soldier of Finance. Jeff is an Iraqi combat veteran and served 9 years in the Army National Guard. His work is regularly featured in Forbes, Business Insider, Inc.com and Entrepreneur.