- Construction loans are short-term loans that you can use to build a new home.
- Some construction loans can be converted to mortgages after your home is finished.
- Construction loans typically have tougher criteria than conventional mortgages for existing homes.
If you can’t find the right home to buy, you might be thinking about building a house instead. Financing this type of project is somewhat different than getting a mortgage to move into an existing property. Instead of a mortgage, you take on a construction loan (also known as a construction mortgage). Here’s what to know about construction loans.
What are construction loans?
Construction loans are loans that fund the building of a residential home (aka a stick-built house), from the land purchase to the finished structure. Common types are a standalone construction loan — a short-term loan (generally with a year-long term) — which only finances the building phase, and a construction-to-permanent loan, which converts into a mortgage once the construction is done. Borrowers who take out a standalone construction loan often get a separate mortgage to pay it off when the principal falls due.
You can use a construction loan to cover such costs as:
- The land
- Contractor labor
- Building materials
How do construction loans work?
The initial term on a construction loan generally lasts a year or less, during which time you must finish the project. Because construction loans work on such a short timetable and are dependent on the project’s progress, you (or your general contractor) must provide the lender with a construction timeline, detailed plans and a realistic budget. Based on that, the lender will release funds at various phases of the project, usually directly to the contractor.
Construction loan statistics
- Construction loans typically require 20 percent down, at minimum.
- As of the second quarter of 2023, commercial and non-commercial construction loan volume totaled $488.54 billion, according to S&P Global Market Intelligence.
- Currently, the top five construction loan lenders, in terms of number of loans, are (in order): Wells Fargo, JP Morgan Chase, Bank of America, U.S. Bank and Bank OZK, reports S&P.
Construction loans vs. traditional mortgages
Beyond the cost and repayment timeline, construction loans and mortgages have a few main differences:
- The funds distribution: Unlike mortgages and personal loans that provide funds in a lump-sum payment, the lender pays out the money for a construction loan in stages as work on the new home progresses. These draws tend to happen when major milestones are completed — for example, when the foundation is laid, or the framing of the house begins.
- The repayments: With a mortgage, you start paying back the principal and interest right away. With construction loans, your lender will typically expect you to make interest payments only during the construction stage. Additionally, borrowers are typically only obligated to repay interest on any funds drawn to date until construction is completed.
- Inspection/appraiser involvement: While the home is being built, the lender has an appraiser or inspector check the house during the various construction stages. As the work is approved, the lender makes additional payments to the contractor, known as draws. Expect to have between four and six inspections to monitor the progress.
- Requirements: Construction loan requirements include being financially stable and having the ability to make a down payment. Lenders also want to see a construction plan, which you can read more about below.
- Interest rates: Construction loan interest rates are typically higher than traditional mortgage rates. This is often because you’re not providing collateral to back the loan, which means the lender is taking on more risk.
Types of construction loans
There are different types of construction loans available to borrowers, which are designed to suit various financial needs.
With a construction-to-permanent loan, you borrow money to pay for the cost of building your home. Once the house is complete and you move in, the loan is converted to a permanent mortgage.
In essence, the loan becomes a traditional mortgage, typically with a loan term of 15 to 30 years. You can opt for a fixed-rate or an adjustable-rate mortgage.
Then, you start making payments that cover interest and the principal. (During the construction loan phase, your lender disburses the funds based upon the percentage of the project completed, and you’re only responsible for interest payments on the money drawn). While many construction loans are conventional loans — entirely privately originated and financed — there are government versions as well. Your other options include an FHA construction-to-permanent loan — with less-stringent approval standards that can be especially helpful for some borrowers — or a VA construction loan if you’re an eligible veteran.
Whatever the type, the big benefit of the construction-to-permanent approach is that you have only one set of closing costs to pay, reducing your overall expenses. “There’s a one-time closing so you don’t pay duplicate settlement fees,” says Janet Bossi, senior vice president at OceanFirst Bank in New Jersey.
A construction-only loan provides the funds necessary to build the home, but the borrower is responsible for repaying the loan in full at maturity (typically one year or less). You can settle the debt either in cash or by obtaining a mortgage to pay it off.
Construction-only loans can ultimately be costlier than their construction-to-permanent cousins, especially if you have to finance the repayment. That’s because you complete two separate loan transactions and pay two sets of fees. Closing costs tend to equal thousands of dollars, so it helps to avoid another set. And, of course, you have to invest time and energy shopping for a mortgage.
Another consideration: Your financial situation might worsen during the construction process. If you lose your job or face some other hardship, you might not be able to qualify for a mortgage later on — and might not be able to move into your new house.
If you want to upgrade an existing home rather than build one, you can compare home renovation loan options. These come in a variety of forms depending on the amount of money you’re spending on the project.
“If a homeowner is looking to spend less than $20,000, they could consider getting a personal loan or using a credit card to finance the renovation,” says Steve Kaminski, head of U.S. Residential Lending at TD Bank. “For renovations starting at $25,000 or so, a home equity loan or line of credit may be appropriate, if the homeowner has built up equity in their home.”
Another viable option in a low mortgage rate environment is a cash-out refinance, whereby a homeowner would take out a new mortgage in a higher amount than their current loan and receive the extra as a lump sum. As rates tick up, though, cash-out refis become less appealing.
With any of these options, the lender generally does not require disclosure of how the homeowner will use the funds. The homeowner manages the budget, the plan and the payments. With other forms of financing, the lender will evaluate the builder, review the budget and oversee the draw schedule.
Owner-builder construction loan
Owner-builder loans are construction-to-permanent or construction-only loans in which the borrower also acts in the capacity of the home builder.
Most lenders won’t allow the borrower to act as their own builder because of the complexity of constructing a home and the experience required to comply with building codes. Lenders typically only allow it if the borrower is a licensed builder by trade.
An end loan simply refers to the homeowner’s mortgage once the property is built, says Kaminski. You use a construction loan during the building phase and repay it once the construction is completed. You’ll then have a regular mortgage to pay off, also known as the end loan.
“Not all lenders offer a construction-to-permanent loan, which involves a single loan closing,” says Kaminski. “Some require a second closing to move into the permanent mortgage, or an end loan.”
Construction loan rates
Unlike traditional mortgages, which carry fixed rates, construction loans usually have variable rates that fluctuate with the prime rate. That means your monthly payment can also change, moving upward or downward based on rate changes.
Construction loan rates are also typically higher than traditional mortgage rates. That’s partially because they’re unsecured (backed by an asset). With a traditional mortgage, your home acts as collateral — if you default on your payments, the lender can seize your home. With a home construction loan, the lender doesn’t have that option, so they tend to view these loans as bigger risks.
On average, you can expect interest rates for construction loans to be about 1 percentage point higher than those of traditional mortgage rates.
Construction loan requirements
The companies that offer construction loans usually require borrowers to:
- Be financially stable. To get a construction loan, you’ll need a low debt-to-income ratio and proof of sufficient income to repay the loan. You also generally need a credit score of at least 680.
- Make a down payment. You need to make a down payment when you apply for the loan, just as you do with most mortgages. The amount will depend on the lender you choose and the amount you’re trying to borrow to pay for construction, but construction loans usually require at least 20 percent down.
- Have a construction plan. Lenders will want you to work with a reputable construction company and architect to come up with a detailed plan and schedule.
- Get a home appraisal. Whether you’re getting a construction-only loan or a construction-to-permanent loan, lenders want to be certain that the home is (or will be) worth the money they’re lending you. The appraiser will assess the blueprints, the value of the lot and other details to arrive at an accurate figure. For construction-to-permanent loans, the home will serve as collateral for the mortgage once construction is complete.
How to get a construction loan
Getting approval for a construction loan might seem similar to the process of obtaining a mortgage, but getting approved to break ground on a brand-new home is a bit more complicated. Generally, you should follow these four steps:
- Find a licensed builder: Lenders will want to know that your chosen builder has the expertise to complete the home. If you have friends who have built their own homes, ask for recommendations. You can also turn to the NAHB’s directory of local home builders’ associations to find contractors in your area. Just as you would compare multiple existing homes before buying one, it’s wise to compare different builders to find the combination of price and expertise that fits your needs.
- Find a construction loan lender: Check with several experienced construction loan lenders to obtain details about their specific programs and procedures. If you have trouble finding a lender willing to work with you, check out smaller regional banks or credit unions. Compare construction loan rates, terms and down payment requirements to ensure you’re getting the best possible deal for your situation.
- Get your documents together: A lender will likely ask for a contract with your builder that includes detailed pricing and plans for the project. Be sure to have references for your builder and any necessary proof of their business credentials. You will also likely need to provide many of the same financial documents as you would for a traditional mortgage, like pay stubs and tax statements, that offer proof of income, assets and employment.
- Get preapproved: Getting preapproved for a construction loan can provide a helpful understanding of how much you will be able to borrow for the project. This can be an important step to avoid paying for plans from an architect or drawing up blueprints for a home that you will not be able to afford.
- Get homeowners insurance: Even though you may not live in the home yet, your lender will likely require a prepaid homeowners insurance policy that includes builder’s risk coverage. This way, if something happens during the construction process — the halfway-built property catches on fire, or someone vandalizes it, for example — you are protected.
Construction loan FAQ
Construction loans cover the costs of building a home. Typically, that means the expenses associated with construction, such as contractor fees, labor and permits. But you can also use the funds to purchase land. However, construction loans do not cover design costs. If you want to hire a professional to design your home, you’ll need to cover that cost on your own.
Ask your lender how money gets disbursed from your loan amount. Some lenders allow for monthly draws, while others will only authorize a draw after a passed inspection. Inquire about any processes or documentation required to pull money from your construction loan so that you can pay the bills in a timely fashion as they come in.
Understanding this process — and ensuring your contractor does, too — can help to avoid delays because of insufficient funds.
There are benefits and drawbacks to construction loans. These types of loans tend to have higher interest rates than those associated with a mortgage, for instance. In addition, the funds provided by a construction loan are only released in stages as work on your home progresses rather than in a lump sum upfront. However, construction loans often only require interest payments while your home is being built, which can be easier on your budget. The loan terms may also be more flexible than those that come with a traditional loan.
Talk to your contractor and discuss the timeline of building the home and what sort of factors could slow down the job. Delays could result in changes to your loan’s interest rate, which can lead to higher payments. Delays can also lead to delays in fund disbursement for construction-only loans.
If your project takes longer than expected, work with your contractor to try to resolve any bottlenecks. You should also keep in touch with your lender to let them know what’s going on. Clear and consistent communication can help avoid major issues with the loan.
In general, it is harder to qualify for a construction loan than for a traditional mortgage. Most lenders require a credit score of at least 680 — which is higher than what you’d need for most conventional, VA and FHA loans. It’s also typical for lenders to ask for a minimum down payment of 20 percent on construction loans, so you may have trouble qualifying if you can’t get that much money together upfront.