How to Build a Capsule Wardrobe

Save more, spend smarter, and make your money go further

There are so many fashion trends that come and go; but what does that mean for your pockets? You’re left overspending, making impulse decisions, or buying items because others are doing the same thing. Remember, fashion is a personal experience. It’s unique to each one of us as we all express our personal style in different ways. The cost of living along with everyday essentials are on the rise; what are a few ways to remain stylish while making sure it’s budget friendly? Use the following tips to build a classic wardrobe that’s always on trend – no matter the occasion.

What is a capsule wardrobe?

A capsule wardrobe consists of a set of tops, bottoms, outerwear, shoes, and various accessories that are versatile and can be mixed based on occasion to create a multitude of looks. The focal point of a capsule wardrobe is to own more on quality pieces that can transcend through the various seasons.

Ranging from between 25 – 75 pieces (or more; just depends on your preference) the key is to be able to identify all your clothing items easily and severely cut down on the time it takes to decide what you’re going to wear from day-to-day. Your new wardrobe should be able to reflect you personally while also remaining super functional.

Step 1: Take an assessment of your closet

Before we get started with hitting our favorite stores or buying everything online; take note of what’s currently in your closet. Begin to create a few mounds of clothes – keep, purge, and repurpose piles. What are the items that no longer fit? What items don’t necessarily fit your personal style anymore?

Be honest with yourself during this exercise. For example, if the clothes fit but you haven’t worn them within the past six months, chances are you may not be in love with them like you thought during the initial purchase. Also consider gently used clothes that are still in good shape to donate or sell to a consignment shop. The funds made from items already in your closet can go toward new pieces for your capsule wardrobe! Consider your current lifestyle as well – are you self-employed, working a 9-5 or a stay-at-home parent? All of this will impact your personal decisions as it relates to clothing.

To streamline this process even further, take pictures of the items you’re going to keep and have them all in one album on your phone. This way, you’re able to track each piece you have before making any new purchases. We often believe we have nothing to wear when it’s time to get dressed – when we really are just unsure of what we have. Reprogram your mind to utilize what you already have versus spending out of impatience and frustration.

Step 2: Identify your personal style and experiment

Social media exposes us to so many people, their personal styles and fashion inspirations. When you take a step back from everyone else’s thoughts and opinions; who inspires you? Create a mood board with outfits that pique your interest, that are classic in nature and are flattering to your body type. Ask yourself the following questions:

  • Are these pieces something I’m going to love years from now?
  • Will I feel confident no matter the occasion?
  • Does this fit my work and personal lifestyle?
  • Am I committed to investing in quality items?

Answering these truthfully are a great baseline to tailoring your wardrobe for you – regardless of what’s ever changing on social media. Next is the fun part; begin experimenting with what’s in your closet! Make sure all your items are in one area in your closet or buy a fashion rack so you’re able to easily identify your growing capsule wardrobe. Using either of these methods should not only cut down your decision time when getting dressed, it gives you the opportunity to create multiple looks with the same pieces. The main goal is functionality – make sure it’s adaptable to your lifestyle and its’ demands.

Step 3: Spend wisely and fight the urge against fast fashion

Quality over quantity is the mantra to live by when wanting to build a capsule wardrobe. Think about it in this way – how can you remain timeless while also having a distinct personal style?

When you’re looking for items to add to your capsule, focus on durability and quality. There’s no point in buying a lot of clothes that can’t withstand a few cycles in the washing machine (lack of quality) or shopping for one specific event (non-functional pieces). Refer to the pictures that’ve been taken of your current items so they’re handy during any shopping trip. Don’t forget to leverage consignment shops or thrift stores during this process. Bulkier, yet timeless items such as trench coats or vests with neutral colors can often be found. If you find that shopping for each season initially is too difficult, begin offseason shopping. During the summer, fall and winter clothes can be reduced heavily in price; use these opportunities as a cost savings.

Step 4: Take your time and have fun!

Transitioning from your current wardrobe to a fully functional one isn’t easy. Don’t overwhelm yourself with trying to finalize each piece in your closet over a designated amount of time. Not only is that not realistic, but it’s also expensive (which partly defeats the purpose) and stressful. This should be a fun, experimental, yet intentional time.

Take note of the outfits you enjoy the most. What about them makes you confident? You’ll discover you love every item in your closet versus simply dealing with pieces to complete an outfit. Take a note of items that may be currently missing from your wardrobe that can be worn at least three ways.

Taking this into account, you’ll be able to add those items into your rotation easily. Every purchase should be strategic and purposeful. While others are chasing trends that change every season, you’ll be peaceful and empowered with a wardrobe distinctly curated by you and your wants.

Save more, spend smarter, and make your money go further

Marsha Barnes

Marsha Barnes is a finance guru with over 20 years of experience dedicates her efforts to empower women worldwide to become financially thriving. Financial competency and literacy are a passion of Marsha’s, providing practical information for clients increasing their overall confidence in their personal finances. More from Marsha Barnes

Source: mint.intuit.com

7 Things to Know Before You Start Biking to Work

When I learned that the cost of my monthly parking garage pass was more than doubling to $75 a month, I balked. Seventy-five dollars a month just to babysit my car while I’m at work?

So one muggy morning, I decided to give bike commuting a shot. I didn’t plan my route. Or my outfit. Or take my bike for a test ride, even though I hadn’t ridden it in months. Hey, what could go wrong in 2 miles?

I took my usual route to work — a busy street with no bike lanes and a rickety sidewalk where cyclists aren’t exactly welcome in the traffic lanes. Funny what you don’t notice from your car.

My dark jeans and black tunic were drenched in sweat less than a mile into my ride. Not a great choice of biking attire for mid-90s temperatures.

But it wasn’t just the end-of-summer heat that was making me sweat. I felt like I was biking uphill — and I live in Florida. I asked myself: Was biking always this hard? Have my leg muscles atrophied?

Then a guy standing at a bus stop pointed out the obvious: My tires needed air.

7 Tips for Anyone Who Wants to Start Biking to Work

I survived the 2-mile ride to work. Then I Ubered home that afternoon.

A few days later, temperatures dropped slightly, and a helpful co-worker put air in my tires. I decided to give bike commuting another try — if only to get my bike home. This time, I planned my route and took a street with bike lanes.

Since then, I’ve become an avid bike commuter. I love that I get to exercise during my commute, and I’m also saving money. Since I live close to work, my savings on gas are minimal, but I have been able to ditch the $75-a-month parking pass. Plus, I’m less prone to after-work impulse buys. If I stop at the grocery store after work, I’m limited to what I can fit in my bike basket.

Want to try biking to work? Here are a few tips I wish I had known before I tried bike commuting.

1. Do a Weekend Test Run

It’s great when you can figure out things — like that your route of choice doesn’t have bike lanes or your tires need air — when you’re not pedaling furiously to a meeting at rush hour.

Test out your commute by doing a practice run during the weekend. You may be surprised by just how bike-unfriendly your normal route is.

Make sure to wear your work attire if you plan to ride in the same clothing you wear during the day. Seeing just how much you sweat could change your mind.

2. Dry Shampoo Is Your Friend

Wearing a helmet is nonnegotiable whenever you ride your bike, OK? So that means helmet hair is something you’re going to have to deal with.

Dry shampoo comes in handy when you need to freshen up to make yourself presentable for the office.

A woman waits to ride a cross a busy road while bike commuting.
Robin waits her turn to cross a busy road on her way to work. Chris Zuppa/The Penny Hoarder

3. Plan Your Outfit Around Your Commute

Riding your bike to work is a lot easier when you don’t have to do a complete change of costume when you get to the office. Opt for lightweight, breathable fabrics like cotton or linen to minimize sweat during your ride. If you wear skirts or dresses, throw on a pair of bicycle shorts or leggings underneath. (Long skirts and dresses are best avoided, though.)

Keep a spare shirt handy in your backpack in case you sweat more than usual or you ride through dirt or dust. (It happens.)

Pro Tip

If you need to pack your clothes and change at the office, a travel-size bottle of wrinkle spray comes in handy. No, your outfit won’t look freshly pressed, but it will smooth things out a bit.

4. Lighten Your Load Already

You’re saving money by bike commuting. But unless you want to fork over that money and then some to your chiropractor, keep your backpack as light as possible. Investing in saddlebags or a bike crate will be well worth it if you have lots of stuff to cart to and from work.

5. Ask Your Employer for Storage Space

Bikes are best stored indoors, where they’re less likely to get stolen. Plus, they’re more likely to rust when exposed to rain or snow.

Here at The Penny Hoarder’s headquarters in St. Petersburg, Florida, we’re lucky to have a passcode-protected bike closet. If your workplace doesn’t have a designated space for bikes, ask your employer to create one — or at least if there’s an acceptable place that you can stash your bike.

If that’s not possible, keep your bike locked up in a busy area with two different types of locks.

Pro Tip

Your car isn’t the only thing that needs a tune-up: Your bike should get a tune-up anywhere from every few months to once a year, depending on how much you ride. Expect to pay $30 to $80.

6. Be Prepared for Bad Weather

Here in Florida, storms are a bit unpredictable. I keep a kid-size poncho in my backpack that I can pop out if it starts to drizzle. The kid-size part is key because it’s short enough that it doesn’t get in the way of pedaling.

Obviously, when there’s lightning or extreme weather, you shouldn’t be biking. So have a backup plan for the days that you aren’t able to bike to work.

Make sure you know of a parking option that doesn’t require a monthly pass, a bus route that’s close to your office or a co-worker who can give you a ride. Otherwise, you’ll need to work the occasional Uber or Lyft into your budget.

7. Don’t Give up Your Parking Pass… Yet

So you’ve had your first successful bike commute? Congrats!

Still, hang onto your parking pass for at least a couple weeks. It’s great when bike commuting happens without a hitch. But what happens when you’re running late, you have a doctor’s appointment before work or you need to run home at lunchtime?

Once you’ve experienced a few disruptions to your regular routine, you can better assess whether giving up parking is feasible.

Is Bike Commuting for You?

This isn’t really an if-I-can-do-it-anyone-can type of thing. There are a lot of reasons bicycle commuting has worked for me:

I have a flexible schedule. I only work daylight hours. My workplace is casual. I live and work in a bike-friendly pocket of St. Petersburg, Florida, which means I don’t have to deal with snowstorms and subzero temperatures. I don’t have kids to shuttle to and from school or day care. Most importantly, I feel safe bike commuting.

If you want to try it, commit to doing it three or four times over the next months. Take it from me: Your first try may not go perfectly. But after three or four times, you’ll get the hang of it.

What if you hate it? Then it’s probably not worth whatever money you save. Your ideal commute is one that doesn’t leave you frazzled before you’ve even gotten to work.

But don’t be surprised if you get hooked. I find my workdays a lot more enjoyable when they start and end with a bike ride instead of circling a dusty parking garage. And the $75 I’m saving is a pretty sweet bonus.

Robin Hartill is a certified financial planner and a senior writer at The Penny Hoarder.  She writes the Dear Penny personal finance advice column. Send your tricky money questions to [email protected] or chat with her in The Penny Hoarder Community

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Source: thepennyhoarder.com

Dear Penny: We Have Bad Credit. Is There Any Hope for a Debt Consolidation Loan?

Dear Penny,

We have credit scores in the 500s, and we are being declined for loans to consolidate our debt to improve our credit.

We understand the importance of improving our credit scores and are frustrated that the debt consolidation we have been advised to apply for is not working out — no approvals. Who can we turn to for a loan?

-D.

Dear D.,

When you have a smorgasbord of debts, life feels like a juggling act. So many due dates, so many interest rates, so many terms and conditions to keep track of.

Then you see the claims in the ads for debt collection loans. Get rid of high-interest credit card debt today! One low monthly payment!

It sounds like a magic little pill that will cure all your financial ailments, right? If only it were that simple.


Unfortunately — as you’ve learned — the people who could benefit most from a debt consolidation loan often don’t qualify. Most lenders require a credit score of at least 620.

You could try applying through a credit union, though membership is required. Unlike big banks, credit unions tend to look beyond your credit score at your overall financial health when you’re seeking a loan.

You can also use websites like Credible, Even Financial or Fiona to shop around for loans. (No, none of them paid me to say that.) But keep in mind that many of the lenders these sites partner with will also require a credit score in the 600s.

While you might be able to consolidate with a lower credit score, you’ll often pay astronomical interest rates — sometimes as much as 30% — which kind of makes the cure as bad as the disease.

But here’s the thing about debt consolidation: Often the benefit is more psychological than mathematical. Sure, life would be a lot simpler with a single monthly payment, but if you can’t lock in a lower interest rate, debt consolidation won’t save you money.

You say you want to consolidate to improve your credit score. If you have enough money to make at least your minimum payments, you’ll gradually see your score increase as you make on-time payments and lower the percentage of your credit you’re using.

Consider speaking with a credit counselor, especially if you can’t afford your minimum payments. The world of debt relief is rife with scammers, so make sure any counselor or organization you work with is a nonprofit that’s accredited by the National Foundation for Credit Counseling.

A credit counselor will help you figure out how to manage your money and debts. The counselor may work out a debt management plan where you make a single payment each month to the counseling organization, which will pay your debts on your behalf. They might be able to lower your monthly payments by negotiating lower interest rates or a longer repayment period, though they generally won’t be able to reduce what you owe.

Avoid companies that offer to work out a debt settlement plan, in which you’ll stop making payments so the company can negotiate to reduce your debt. Not only will these plans kill your credit, but you’ll also owe taxes on the amount that’s forgiven.

It’s easy to get discouraged when you’re deep in debt and low on options for rebuilding your credit. But keep in mind that while a debt consolidation loan might improve your credit somewhat in the short term, it won’t fix the underlying causes of your debt.

Building good credit doesn’t happen quickly. You have to figure out a way not to rely on credit, and to spend less than you make. It requires discipline and a commitment to financial health. And there’s no magic pill for that.

Robin Hartill is a certified financial planner and a senior writer at The Penny Hoarder. Send your tricky money questions to [email protected] or chat with her in The Penny Hoarder Community.

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Source: thepennyhoarder.com

6 Birds That Make Great Apartment Pets

If you’re looking to add an animal to your apartment, consider birds as they’re great companions and affectionate pets.

When you think of getting your first pet, cats or dogs are the first species of animals that come to mind. But, have you ever considered a bird? Birds are popular pets as they’re friendly and affectionate yet they don’t take up too much space in your apartment.

Birds are great pets for apartment dwellers because they’re low maintenance while still being extremely affectionate with big personalities. Whether you want a few smaller birds or one large parrot, it’s important to discover which popular pet bird species is right for you.

Throughout this article, we’ll talk to you about all the different species and help you decide which is the friendliest pet bird species for you.

Welcome to the bird world

Are you new to pet ownership? Don’t fret. There are several bird species and they all make for wonderful pets. But before you go to the local pet store or aviary, you need to ask yourself a few questions to determine which pet is the best one for you.

Don

Don

Does your apartment complex allow birds?

Before bringing any type of animal into your apartment, you need to read your lease agreement and talk to your landlord about the pet policy. The first thing to find out is if your apartment allows pets, and specifically if they allow birds.

If your apartment is not pet-friendly, don’t sneak a pet into the apartment as there are serious negative consequences. Once you get the green light that your apartment is pet-friendly, then you can continue your search for the perfect pet.

Can you afford it?

As with any pet, you need to do some math to ensure that your budget can stretch to accommodate your first bird. In addition to purchasing the cage, which varies in price, you’ll need to calculate the cost of birdseed, fresh fruit and veggies, toys for mental stimulation, veterinary care, cleaning and grooming costs and additional money for unexpected costs that may arise.

Different species can cost different amounts, too. Owning a bird can add up, so make sure you can afford the care needed to take care of your little feathered creature.

How much time do you have to care for it?

While some birds are more low maintenance than others, all birds need some human attention every day to thrive. Ask yourself how much time you actually have each day to care for your new pet and give it the human interaction it deserves.

If you only have an hour each day to dedicate to your pet, consider a parakeet as they’re a low-maintenance bird. On the other hand, if you have ample amounts of time at home to care for and train your bird, you may consider a parrot species.

Do your research to understand the level of training, stimulation and care each different bird species needs to thrive.

Birds need stimulation with toys.

Birds need stimulation with toys.

Where is it coming from?

We don’t just mean which pet store is your bird coming from. Unfortunately, birds are illegally obtained and sold. In fact, some birds — like the African grey parrot — are on the verge of extinction from the illegal bird trade. African greys are intelligent birds that people love as pets, but they face extinction in their natural habitat due to illegal activities.

Responsible pet owners will ask the breeder where the bird came from to ensure they aren’t contributing to the illegal bird trade. Another great option is to adopt a bird from a shelter. That way, you’re saving a life and helping to give a shelter pet a friendly new home.

Is the species compatible with children and other pets?

Are you looking to add some playful birds to your house? Well, if you have children or other animals in the house, you need to make sure that your new chirpy addition is good with other animals, children or other birds.

Don’t bring a new bird into the apartment and expect it to get along well with others. Some birds are great with other species while some are better suited alone.

For example, if you have a cat, it’s probably not smart to add a bird to the mix. The cat may view it as lunch. Save yourself some tears and heartache and make sure that all family members, pets included, are compatible with your new friend.

Top 6 best pet birds

OK, so you’ve decided that you want a pet bird and want to bring one home. But, what are the best pet birds for you? Here are some different options to consider.

Pionus parrots

Pionus parrots

Pionus parrots

  • Blue and green
  • Medium size
  • ~30-year life span

The Pionus parrot is part of the parrot family and is originally found in South America. This is a great species for families to own as the species isn’t prone to attaching to a single person, as other parrots sometimes do. This intelligent one is sure to charm you as it’s relatively quiet and reserved. This pet bird does need a lot of attention, otherwise, it can get moody and demanding.

If you’re looking for a great companion for the whole family, the Pionus parrot is a good choice to consider.

Cockatiel

Cockatiel

Cockatiels

  • Gray, white and yellow
  • Small size
  • ~ 20-year life span

These little birds are some of the most popular pets for bird owners. They’re friendly, lovable and great for apartment dwellers. They love whistling and will likely serenade you throughout the day. Part of the parrot family, they do require attention and stimulation but are on the smaller side, so they won’t take up too much space in your apartment. They cost anywhere from $30 to $250 to purchase.

If you’re a new pet owner, experts recommend getting a female cockatiel as they aren’t as moody and possessive as their male counterparts. They love company so you can even consider getting two so they have each other. If you want two cockatiels, a male and a female will work well together. Keep in mind that if you only get one, they may require more attention from you. However, you’ll have the perfect companion on your shoulder.

Hyacinth macaw

Hyacinth macaw

Hyacinth macaws

  • Blue
  • Large size
  • ~30+ year life span

Native to central South America, the hyacinth macaws are the larger cousins to something like the Pionus parrot. These beautiful birds are spectacular and full of personality. They love to play and be seen. The hyacinth macaw definitely needs attention from its pet owner.

The hyacinth macaw can live for at least 30 years or more and cost anywhere from $5,000 to $12,000 to purchase. They need a large cage that’s at least six feet, as they’re the largest parrot in the world.

If you’re experienced with birds and can give these gentle giants the proper care, then they do make great pets. But, if you’re looking for a friendly pet to start off with, this is not the right creature for you.

Scarlet macaw

Scarlet macaw

Scarlet macaws

  • Blue, red and green
  • Large size
  • 30+ year life span

When you think of a parrot, you probably imagine a rainbow-colored animal that can talk like and mimic humans. The scarlet macaw is that large, glorious, rainbow-colored bird. While they can talk, they don’t mimic the voice and tone (that’s the African grey!) of their owner.

Scarlet macaws are fun birds as they’re friendly, affectionate and intelligent. However, they’re not low maintenance and require a lot of time and human attention. The scarlet macaw will form strong bonds with you if it lives alone, just like it would bond with others if it were in the wild. If you’re looking for a long-term companion, consider this creature.

Green-cheeked conurre

Green-cheeked conurre

Green-cheeked conures

  • Green
  • Small or medium
  • ~20-year life span

This smaller species is a popular pet for families. They’re friendly birds that are affectionate and will dole out sweet gestures, like cuddling, when properly tamed. The green-cheeked conure will chatter but they’re good for apartment dwellers as they aren’t too noisy. These small birds cost anywhere from $150 t0 $300.

The green-cheeked conure is a playful, energetic and cuddly creature. While they demand attention, they just want love and if they live in positive environments, they’ll become your feathered best friend.

Amazon parrot

Amazon parrot

Amazon parrots

  • Green
  • Medium to large
  • 40+ year life span

Like most parrots, the Amazon parrot requires attention, proper mental stimulation and care. These mischievous birds like attention but are a great family pet. If you have the time to commit to it, the Amazon parrot is a friendly pet bird species to consider. You can teach it basic things and bond with this gorgeous creature.

Budgie

Budgie

What’s the easiest bird to have as a pet?

One of the easiest birds to have as a pet is the budgie, also known as a parakeet. These cute creatures are friendly pet bird species who love attention, food and play. If you’re looking for a new pet that’s easy but will give you love, cuddles and companionship, the bird world often recommends starting with a budgie.

Budgies want human interaction and don’t do well completely isolated. While they’re pretty low maintenance, they still want to interact with their humans and will be extremely affectionate with pet owners who show them love.

If you’re looking for an easy pet bird, consider the budgie or parakeet.

The best bird to have as a pet

What’s the best bird to have in your apartment? Well, that depends on what you’re looking for. Birds, in general, need attention, proper care and love from their owners. If you want a low-maintenance pet, then a parakeet is the best pet bird for you. If you want a lifelong companion you can train, then the African grey is a great option.

We can’t tell you the best bird as that depends on you and your lifestyle. But, we can walk you through all of the basic pros and cons to help you determine the best one for you.

Here are some of the common pros and cons bird owners share. Consider these when determining which feathered creature to take home.

Pros of having a feathered friend

Animals bring joy and birds are no exception. These are some of the best benefits of having a feathered friend in your apartment.

They can learn basic commands

Talking parrots aren’t just found on pirate ships. If you take the time to train your bird, you can teach it easy commands and different words and it’ll talk to you! This is one of the most fun and memorable aspects of owning a bird. We’d like to see a talking Golden Retriever!

Birds love a snuggle

Birds love a snuggle

They’re affectionate pets

You might think that only cats or dogs cuddle with their human, but you’d be wrong. Birds are affectionate creatures who will cuddle you if you love them. Let them perch on your shoulder or arm and you’ll have a featured friend who loves you just as much as you love them.

They’re extremely sweet

All birds have personalities and most are very sweet. Birds want love and attention, but in return, they’ll love you back. Some will charm you with little chirps while others will speak to you. They’re popular pets because of how sweet they are.

Cons of having a feathered friend

As with any pet, there are parts of pet parenting that aren’t so glamorous. Here are some cons to know.

Birds make a lot of noise.

Birds make a lot of noise.

They’re incredibly noisy

We all know that birds tweet, but some are very loud, especially when ignored. If you live in a small apartment space next to other neighbors, your bird’s continual chirping may not appeal to everyone.

They’re expensive

While some smaller birds cost $50 to purchase, their larger cousins can cost upwards of $12,000. And that’s just for the bird itself! That doesn’t factor in food, toys, vet bills, training and other pet-related costs. Birds are expensive to purchase and maintain, compared to other pets.

They require proper care and space

You don’t just buy a bird and call it good. Birds need the right cage with enough room to spread their wings, the right space and the right care. If you can’t commit to the proper training and attention needed, which is hours a day, then this is not the right animal for you.

Becoming a pet bird owner

Are you sold that these extremely sweet, feathered creatures are right for you? Make sure you’ve done your research, checked your budget and found the bird that you can grow to love and form strong bonds with. We know they won’t disappoint with their sweet and affectionate cuddles and beautiful birdsongs.

Source: rent.com

How to Become a Plumber in 2022

Licensed master plumbers have the highest earning potential. The top 10% of plumbers can earn ,920 a year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
And on the high end, earning potential for master plumbers nearly reached 0,000 for the top 10%.
How Much School Do Plumbers Need?

How to Become a Plumber in 4 Steps

Potential education topics at a vocational school might include plumbing theory, water distribution, blueprint reading, draining and venting, pipe cutting and soldering and even electrical basics.
If you are currently a high school student interested in becoming a plumber, take all the math courses you can. In addition, choose classes like physics and shop to help you build an effective knowledge and skills base.
Becoming a plumber is all about licensure, so college is not a requirement. However, plumbers typically need to have their high school diploma or general equivalency diploma (GED) to start an apprenticeship. A diploma or GED is also important if you plan to take any plumbing courses at a community college (more on that below).

1. Get Your High School Diploma or GED

To be considered a journeyman plumber, you will need to pass your state’s licensing exam. In general, you will need to renew this license every three to five years and take continuing education courses to maintain your licensed status.
A plumber’s skill set is varied. As a plumber, you will need the technical knowledge to diagnose plumbing problems and make repairs. You will also need to be proficient in using a wide variety of tools, including saws, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches and torches. Remaining in top physical condition is crucial, as you will frequently do heavy lifting and perform tasks that require stamina, often in very hot or cold environments.
Most states require you to operate as a journeyman plumber for a set number of years (between two and five) before you can seek licensure as a master plumber. To earn your license, you’ll need to pass a written and practical exam.

2. Become an Apprentice

Upon completing your apprenticeship, you can apply to become a licensed journeyman plumber. Once you reach this status, you will be able to work unsupervised on commercial and residential projects.
Becoming a plumber does not require the college career path. Instead, you will complete high school and find work as an apprentice. After a few years, you can get licensed as a journeyman plumber and then a master plumber.
We’ve found the answers to the most commonly asked questions about becoming a plumber, including how long it takes until you’re repairing leaky sinks on your own.
To earn a plumbing license, you must first complete a four- to five-year apprenticeship and then pass the journeyman exam; an apprenticeship includes classroom instruction but no formal school program. Some plumbers choose to attend a year or two of plumbing trade school before their apprenticeship.
A plumbing apprenticeship program includes on-the-job training and some classroom instruction, but many plumbers choose to attend a vocational school as a first step. Plumbing trade schools may offer special certification or even a two-year associate degree.

3. Become a Journeyman Plumber

In general, you can find a plumbing apprenticeship program through trade unions, community colleges, trade schools and even private businesses. You might need to pass an exam or interview with a licensed plumber.
How Long Does It Take to Become a Plumber?
How Much Money Do Plumbers Make?

4. Become a Master Plumber

Ready to stop worrying about money?
Depending on your state, you may be able to earn special endorsements and certifications. For example, in the Lone Star State, in addition to your Texas plumbing license, you can obtain endorsements for medical gas piping installation, multipurpose residential fire protection sprinkler installation and water supply protection installation and repair.
Scroll on to learn how to become a plumber — and what you can expect out of the career.

Wondering how to become a plumber? Our guide covers the education, apprenticeship and licensing requirements on your journey to getting certified as a licensed plumber — and offers a peek into the day-to-day, job outlook and typical salary.

Optional: Go to a Trade School

Earning a special degree or certification can give you a leg-up when applying for competitive apprenticeships.
In high school, math will be crucial to your role as a plumber. Each day, plumbers use concepts from algebra and geometry, and they’re regularly calculating using various units of measure.
At the journey level, you can work for a plumbing company or start your own business.

How Much Do Plumbers Make?

Plumbers can work on both residential and commercial projects. The day-to-day duties might include remodeling bathrooms and kitchens, replacing and repairing water and drain lines, installing new water heaters, installing new faucets, installing new toilets and installing water filtration systems.
In 2021, the median pay for plumbers was ,880, but the top 10% earned ,920.
As a master plumber, you’ll reach peak earning potential and can even run your own plumbing business.

What Do Plumbers Do?

If you want to work in a supervisory capacity or be able to employ additional plumbers for your business, you will need to become a licensed master plumber.

Necessary Skills

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Plumbing apprenticeships generally last four to five years, during which time you’ll receive roughly 2,000 hours of on-the-job training in the plumbing trade, plus technical instruction. During this time, you’ll learn about local plumbing codes and regulations, how to read blueprints and OSHA safety regulations.Advanced education may cover topics like plumbing fixtures and drainage systems. Unlike pursuing a college degree, however, plumbing apprenticeships are paid.

Challenges

The median pay for plumbers last year was ,880, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Though the labor is tough, hours can be long and the work can be dangerous, becoming a licensed plumber may be well worth it if you have the necessary skills and dedication.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Becoming a Plumber

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Becoming a licensed plumber takes at least four to five years, as this is the general length of an apprenticeship. Some aspiring plumbers choose a year or two of vocational school before their apprenticeship. After completing an apprenticeship, you can earn your journeyman and then master plumber license.
As an apprentice plumber, you won’t be able to tackle projects yourself. Instead, you will shadow a journeyman plumber or a master plumber, depending on the program.
License laws and types vary by state. Determine the state that you wish to operate in as a plumber, and research those specific guidelines. The steps below offer a more general look at how to become a plumber.
Plumbers need to be able to cut and solder pipes, diagnose and troubleshoot issues with plumbing systems and interpret (or even draw) blueprints. If you run your own plumbing company, you will also need to handle advertising, scheduling, taxes and billing — or hire someone to do that for you.
An apprenticeship offers on-the-job experience and classroom education. Programs vary by state and organization in terms of structure, length and application process.
Skilled plumbers fulfill a crucial need in society, and demand for plumbers continues to grow. Though the manual labor is often grueling, a career in plumbing can be quite lucrative — and doesn’t require expensive schooling and massive student loan debt.

Once you have your diploma or GED, the next step to becoming a licensed plumbing contractor is either attending plumbing school or completing an apprenticeship. Plumbing school is typically optional (but we’ve got more details below); many plumbing hopefuls skip straight to an apprenticeship. <!–

–>


While the BLS targets 5% job growth through 2030, the increase in home renovation projects due to the ongoing pandemic may create even more plumbing jobs in the years ahead.

What Is Inflation (Definition) – Causes & Effects of Rate on Prices & Interest

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People have always grumbled that a dollar doesn’t go as far as it used to. But these days, that complaint is truer than ever. No matter where you go — the gas station, the grocery store, the movies — prices are higher than they were just a month or two ago.

What we’re seeing is the return of a familiar economic foe: inflation. Many Americans alive today have never seen price increases like these before. For the past three decades, inflation has never been above 4% per year. But as of March 2022, it’s at 8.5%, a level not seen since 1981.

Modest inflation, like what we had up through 2020, is normal and even healthy for an economy. But the rate of inflation we’re seeing now is neither normal nor healthy. It does more than just raise the cost of living. It can have a serious impact on the economy as a whole. 

Recent inflation-related news:


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  • In March 2022, the U.S. inflation rate hit a 40-year high of 8.5%. 
  • Prices for gasoline have increased nearly 50% over the past year.
  • Retail giant Amazon has added a 5% fuel and inflation surcharge for sellers.
  • The Federal Reserve is planning a series of interest rate hikes to cool the overheated economy.

What Is Inflation?

Inflation is more than just rising prices. Prices of specific things we buy, from a gallon of milk to a year of college tuition, rise and fall all the time. These price increases affect individual consumers’ lives, but they don’t have a big impact on the entire economy.

Inflation is a general increase in the prices of goods and services across the board. It drives up prices for everything you buy, from a haircut to a gallon of gas. Or, to put it another way, the purchasing power of every dollar in your pocket declines.

Most of the time, inflation doesn’t disrupt people’s lives too much, because prices rise for labor as well. If your household spending increases by 5% but your paycheck increases by 5% at the same time, you’re no worse off than before.

But when prices rise sharply, wages can’t always keep up. That makes it harder for consumers to make ends meet. It also drives them to change their spending behaviors in ways that often make the problem worse.


Causes of Inflation

Inflation depends on the twin forces of supply and demand. Supply is the amount of a particular good or service that’s available. Demand is the amount of that particular good or service that people want to buy. More demand drives prices up, while more supply drives them down. 

To see why, suppose you have 10 loaves of bread to sell. You have 10 buyers who want bread and are willing to pay $1 per loaf. So you can sell all 10 loaves at $1 each.

But if 10 more buyers suddenly enter the market, they will have to compete for your bread. To make sure they get some, they might be willing to pay as much as $2 per loaf. The higher demand has pushed the price up.

By contrast, if another seller shows up with 10 loaves of bread, the two of you will be competing for buyers. To sell your bread, you might have to lower the price to as little as $0.50 per loaf. The higher supply has pushed prices down.

Inflation results from demand outstripping supply. Economists often describe this as “too much money chasing too few goods.” There are several ways this kind of imbalance can happen.

Cost-Push Inflation

Cost-push inflation happens when it costs more to produce goods. To go back to the bread example, cost-push inflation might happen because a wheat shortage makes flour more expensive. It costs you more to make each loaf of bread, so you can’t afford to bake as much.

As a result, you bring only five loaves to the market. But there are still 10 customers who want to buy bread, so they must pay more to get their share. The higher cost of production drives down the supply and thus drives up the price.

In the real world, cost-push inflation can result from higher costs for anything that goes into making a product. This includes:

  • Raw Materials. The wheat that went into your bread is an example. Higher-cost wheat means higher-cost flour, which means higher-cost bread.
  • Transportation. In today’s global economy, materials and finished goods move around a lot. Transporting products requires fuel, which usually comes from oil. So whenever oil prices go up, the price of other goods rises as well. 
  • Labor. Another factor in production cost is labor. When schools closed during the COVID-19 pandemic, many parents had to stop working to care for their children. That created a worker shortage that drove prices up.

Demand-Pull Inflation

The opposite of cost-push inflation is demand-pull inflation. It occurs when consumers want to buy more than the market can supply, driving prices up.

Typically, demand-pull inflation results from economic growth. Rising wages and lower levels of unemployment put more money in people’s pockets, and people who have more money want to spend more. If the booming economy hasn’t produced enough goods and services to match this new demand, prices rise.

Other causes of demand-pull inflation include: 

  • Increased Money Supply. Another way people can end up with more money in their pockets is because the government has put more money in circulation. Governments often do this to stimulate a weak economy or to pay off past debts. But as the money supply increases, the purchasing power of each dollar shrinks. 
  • Rapid Population Growth. When the population grows rapidly, the demand for goods and services grows also. If the economy doesn’t produce more to compensate, prices rise. In Europe during the 1500s and 1600s, prices soared as the population grew so fast that agriculture couldn’t keep up with the new demand.
  • Panic Buying. Early in the COVID pandemic, consumers started buying extra groceries to fill their pantries in preparation for a lockdown. This led to shortages of many staple products, like milk and toilet paper. As a result, prices for those goods went up.
  • Pent-Up Demand. This occurs when people return to spending after a period of going without. This often happens in the wake of a recession. It also occurred as pandemic restrictions eased and people returned to enjoying movies, travel, and restaurant meals.

Built-In Inflation

When consumers expect prices to be higher in the future, they often respond by spending more now. If the purchasing power of their savings is only going to fall, it makes more sense to take that money out of the bank and use it on a major purchase, like a new car or a large appliance.

In this way, expectations of high inflation can themselves lead to inflation. This type of inflation is called built-in inflation because it builds on itself. 

When workers expect the cost of living to rise, they demand higher wages. But then they have more to spend, so they spend more, driving prices up. This, in turn, reinforces the belief that  prices will keep rising, leading to still higher wage demands. This cycle of rising wages and prices is called a wage-price spiral.


Effects of Inflation

Inflation does more than just drive up the cost of living. It changes the economy in a variety of ways — some harmful, others helpful. The effects of inflation include:

  • Higher Wages. As prices rise with inflation, wages typically rise as well. This can create a wage-price spiral that drives inflation still higher.
  • Higher Interest Rates. When the dollar is declining in value, banks often respond by raising interest rates on loans. The Federal Reserve also typically raises interest rates to cool the economy and rein in inflation, as discussed below.
  • Cheaper Debt. Inflation is good for debtors because they can pay off their debts with cheaper dollars. This is most useful for loans with a fixed interest rate, such as fixed-rate mortgages and student loans.
  • More Consumption. Inflation encourages consumers to spend money because they know it will be worth less later. All this spending keeps the economy humming, but it can also drive prices even higher.
  • Lower Savings Rates. Just as inflation encourages spending, it discourages saving. Higher interest rates can counter this effect, but they often don’t rise enough to make a difference.
  • Less Valuable Benefits. High inflation is worse for people on a fixed income. They face higher prices without higher wages to make up for them. Benefits such as Social Security change each year to adjust for inflation, but higher benefits next year don’t help when prices are rising right now.
  • More Valuable Tangible Assets. Inflation reduces the purchasing power of the dollars you have in the bank. Tangible assets like real estate, however, gain in dollar value as prices rise.

Measuring Inflation

The most common measure of inflation is the Consumer Price Index, or CPI. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) determines the CPI based on the cost of an imaginary basket of goods and services. BLS workers painstakingly check prices on all these items each month and record how each price changes.

To calculate the annual rate of inflation, the BLS looks at how much all prices in its basket have changed since a year earlier. Then it “weights” the value of each item based on how much of it people buy. The weighted average of all items becomes the CPI.

The BLS then uses the CPI to calculate the annual rate of inflation. It divides this month’s CPI by the CPI from a year ago, then multiplies the result by 100. This shows how the purchasing power of a dollar has changed over the last year. The result is reported monthly.

Other measures of inflation include:

  • Personal Consumption Expenditures Price Index (PCE). This inflation measure is published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Like the CPI, it’s a measure of consumer costs, but it’s adjusted to account for changes in the products people buy. The Federal Reserve uses the PCE to guide its monetary policy, as discussed below. 
  • Producer Price Index (PPI). The PPI measures inflation from the seller’s perspective, not the buyer’s. It’s calculated by dividing the price sellers currently get for a basket of goods and services by its price in a base year, then multiplying the result by 100.

Historical Examples of Inflation

A little bit of inflation is normal. But sometimes inflation spirals out of control, with prices rising more than 50% per month. This is called hyperinflation, and it can be devastating for an economy.

Hyperinflation has occurred at various times and places throughout history. During the U.S. Civil War, both sides experienced soaring inflation. Other examples include Germany in the 1920s, Greece and Hungary after World War II, Yugoslavia and Peru in the 1990s, and Venezuela today. In most cases, the main cause was the government printing money to pay for debt. 

The last time the U.S. had prolonged, high rates of inflation was in the 1970s and early 1980s. The inflation rate was nowhere near hyperinflation levels, but it spiked above 10% twice. Eventually, the Fed hiked interest rates to double-digit levels to get it under control.

Although high inflation can be destructive, zero inflation isn’t a good thing, either. At that point, an economy is at risk of the opposite problem, deflation. 

When prices and wages fall across the board, consumers spend less. Sales of products and services fall, so companies cut back staff or go out of business. As a result, jobs are lost and spending drops still more, worsening the problem. The Great Depression was an example.


The Federal Reserve, or Fed, is the U.S. central bank — or more accurately, banks. It’s a group of 12 banks spread across the country under the control of a central board of governors. Its job is to keep the economy on track, reining in inflation while trying to avoid recessions. 

The Fed maintains this balance through monetary policy, or controlling the availability of money.

Its main tool for doing this is interest rates. When the economy is weak, the Fed lowers the federal funds rate. This makes it easier for people to borrow and spend. 

When the problem is inflation, it does the opposite, raising interest rates. This makes it more costly to borrow and more worthwhile to save. As a result, consumers spend less, slowing down the wage-price spiral.

The Fed has other tools for fighting inflation as well. One option is to change reserve requirements for banks, requiring them to hold more cash. That gives them less to lend out, which in turn reduces the amount consumers and businesses have to spend.

Finally, the Fed can reduce the money supply directly. The main way it does this is to increase the interest rate paid on government bonds. That encourages more people to buy bonds, which temporarily takes their money out of circulation and puts it in the hands of the government.


Inflation Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

If you keep seeing stories about inflation in the news, you may have some other questions about how it works. For instance, you may wonder:

What Is Hyperinflation?

Hyperinflation is more than just high inflation. It’s a wage-price spiral gone mad, sending prices soaring out of control. As noted above, the usual definition of hyperinflation is an inflation rate of at least 50% per month — more than 12,000% per year. However, some economists use the term to refer to an inflation rate of 1,000% or more per year.

What Is Disinflation?

Disinflation is a fall in the rate of inflation. This is what the Federal Reserve and other central banks try to achieve through their monetary policy, such as raising interest rates.

Disinflation is not the same as deflation, or falling prices. During a period of disinflation, prices are continuing to rise, but the rate at which they rise is slowing down.

What Is Transitory Inflation?

When the first signs of a post-COVID-19 inflation spike appeared, Federal Reserve chair Jerome Powell described it as “transitory.” By this, he meant that the rise in prices would be short-lived and would not do permanent damage to the economy. 

However, in November 2021, Powell declared it was “time to retire that word.” Based on the growth in prices, he had concluded that inflation was more of a long-term trend. The Federal Reserve responded by planning to fight inflation harder, buying more bonds and plotting out a series of interest rate hikes.

What Is Core Inflation?

Measuring inflation can be tricky because prices for some products fluctuate more than others. Food and energy prices, in particular, can shift a lot from month to month. Including these products in the CPI can lead to sharp, but temporary, spikes or dips in the inflation rate.

To adjust for this, the CPI and PCE have a separate “core” version that doesn’t include food or energy prices. This core inflation measure is more useful for predicting long-term trends. The  main versions of the CPI and PCE, known as the “headline” versions, give a more accurate picture of how prices are changing right now.

What Is the Consumer Price Index (CPI)?

As noted above, the Consumer Price Index, or CPI, is the main measure of inflation in the United States. The BLS calculates it based on how much prices have risen for an imaginary basket of goods and services that many Americans buy.


Final Word

A little inflation in an economy is normal. It can even be a good thing, because it’s a sign that consumers are spending and businesses are earning. The Fed generally considers an annual inflation rate of 2% to be healthy.

However, higher inflation can cause serious problems for an economy. It’s bad for savers whose nest eggs, including retirement savings, shrink in value. It’s even worse for seniors and others on fixed incomes whose purchasing power has fallen. And it often requires strong measures from the central bank to correct it — measures that risk driving the economy into a recession.

If you’re concerned about the effects of inflation, there are several ways to protect yourself. You can adjust your household budget, putting more dollars into the categories where prices are rising fastest. You can stock up on household basics now, before the purchasing power of your dollars falls too much. 

Finally, you can choose investments that do well during periods of inflation. Stock-based mutual funds and real estate investment trusts are both good choices. Just be careful with inflation hedges like gold and cryptocurrency, which carry risks of their own.

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GME is so 2021. Fine art is forever. And its 5-year returns are a heck of a lot better than this week’s meme stock. Invest in something real. Invest with Masterworks.

Amy Livingston is a freelance writer who can actually answer yes to the question, “And from that you make a living?” She has written about personal finance and shopping strategies for a variety of publications, including ConsumerSearch.com, ShopSmart.com, and the Dollar Stretcher newsletter. She also maintains a personal blog, Ecofrugal Living, on ways to save money and live green at the same time.

Source: moneycrashers.com

How Much is an iPod Worth?

In a file photo dated 2015, an iPod, iPod Nano and iPod Shuffle are displayed at an Apple store in New York.

In this 2015 file photo, from left, an iPod, iPod Nano and iPod Shuffle are displayed at an Apple store in New York. AP Photo by Mark Lennihan

Apple announced that it’s discontinuing the iPod, so is now a good time to sell your old iPod?

Apple introduced the first iPod in 2001, revolutionizing the way we listen to music, and Apple products can surprisingly hold their value. From Apple’s vintage original to the final 7th generation iPod Touch, here’s how much your old iPod is worth.

How Much Is an iPod Worth?

Your iPod’s value will depend on the model, age, condition and storage capacity. At the lower end are iPods with heavy cosmetic damage, while on the higher end are iPods in excellent condition, often with large storage capacities.

There are five categories of iPod: the Classic, Mini, Nano, Shuffle and Touch. You can go to Apple’s support page if you need help identifying your iPod model.

The estimated prices are subject to change and are based upon data found as of the publish date. The sale prices are based on sold and completed listings from online auction and e-commerce sites, including eBay and Amazon.

If you have a broken iPod, you should assume that the estimated value is even less, but you can try selling it as-is for a lower price.

Value of the iPod Classic

Price range: $30-$1,000

The most valuable iPod Classics are the original 1st generation, a piece of Apple history, and the final two generations, which are still usable today. All sell particularly well if they are still in their original packaging.

Apple released six versions of the iPod Classic over its lifetime, with the last model announced in 2007 and discontinued in 2014.

iPod Classic

Generation Condition/Packaging Selling For
1st Good to excellent condition $200 to $500
1st Original packaging $1,000
2nd Good condition At least $150
2nd Perfect condition with all the accessories $300
3rd Good condition $50 to $100
4th Good condition $36 to $60
5th and 6th Good to like new $60 to $180

Value of the iPod Mini

Price range: $20-$150

The Apple iPod Mini was a successful, scaled-down iPod that introduced the famous Click Wheel. The only decent price you can get for the iPod Mini is if you have it with the original box in excellent condition.

iPod Mini

Generation Condition/Packaging Selling For
All Good condition $20 to $60
All Original box, excellent condition As high as $150

Value of the iPod Nano 

Price range: $20-$350

The Apple iPod Nano was the successor to the iPod Mini, featuring smaller-capacity solid-state flash memory. The iPod Nano’s design changed wildly over the seven generations it was offered from 2005 to 2017.

Starting with a Click Wheel, the Nano eventually became a touch-screen device. The 1st generation iPod Nano is seen as a collector’s piece when it’s a sealed, new in-box device.

iPod Nano

Generation Condition/ Packaging Selling For
1st, 2nd and 3rd Sealed, new in box Up to $350
1st, 2nd and 3rd Used $20 to $60
4th and 5th Good condition $30 to $100
6th and 7th Good condition Starting at $25
6th and 7th Sealed in original boxes Up to $250

Value of the iPod Shuffle

Price range: $10-$160

Designed as a cheaper alternative, the iPod Shuffle lacked a screen, forcing the user to rely on a shuffle feature that randomly played music. The shuffle lasted from 2005 to 2010 and had six different generations.

As with the others, the most valuable Shuffles are in their original boxes.

iPod Shuffle

Generation Condition/ Packaging Selling For
1st Original box $50 to $160
1st No box $10 to $25
2nd Good to sealed in box $15 to $70
3rd Good to sealed in box $15 to $80
4th Good $30
4th New, in-box Up to $150

Value of the iPod Touch

Price range: $20 to $600

The iPod Touch was introduced in 2007 and continued selling up until 2022. The last generation to be produced included up to 256 GB of storage and Apple’s A10 Fusion SoC. Values can range wildly, depending on the age, condition and storage.

Apple is continuing to sell the iPod Touch 7th generation for up to $400 while supplies last, but don’t expect them to last for too long.

iPod Touch

Generation Condition/ Packaging Selling For
1st Good condition with original box & all accessories $20 to $50
1st New, in box Up to $600
2nd Good condition $20 to $50
3rd Good condition $20 to $50
4th Good condition $25 to $80
5th New in box, larger capacity Up to $100
6th Good condition $30 to $120
7th Used, good condition $130 to $330

Where Should I Sell My iPod?

If you are looking to sell your old iPods, start with online classifieds such as Facebook Marketplace or the OfferUp app for Android or iOS.

You can list your vintage iPods there for free, and they do not collect any fees if you sell the devices in person. If you list the devices as shippable, you’ll need to pay applicable fees as well as the cost of shipping (if you don’t charge your buyer).

You can also sell your old iPod on eBay. It charges fees to its sellers, but you will get a broad audience to sell your device. Take clear photographs and list your iPod at a competitive price.

For the best chance of selling your old device, research what other people are selling the same iPod model for in your condition and storage size.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Is an old iPod worth anything?

iPods can be worth as little as $10 and as much as $1,000, depending on its model, age, condition and storage capacity.

What is an iPod Touch worth?

Apple’s iPod Touch can be worth anywhere from $20 to $600, depending on the generation. While a new, in-box 1st generation sells for as much as $600, other models fetch prices that barely cover their shipping cost. 

What iPods are worth the most?

The iPod with the most value is a sealed, in-box iPod 1st Generation from 2005. The original iPod can sell for around $1,000 in a well-preserved state. A sealed, in-box iPod Touch 1st Generation for $600. A sealed, in-box iPod Nano 1st Generation for $350.

But I heard ‘this’ iPod is worth thousands?

There are rare models that have sold for thousands of dollars in the past. In general, the market has changed since many of these iPods were originally sold.

Michael Archambault is a senior writer for The Penny Hoarder specializing in technology.

Source: thepennyhoarder.com