The Best Places to Live in Pennsylvania in 2022

  • Pennsylvania is known as the Keystone State for its role in U.S. history
  • The state’s roots are deep in manufacturing, including industries such as coal and steel
  • Living in Pennsylvania gives you access to all the riches of the state, no matter what city you call home

Pennsylvania holds a notable place in the history of this country. Not only did it help shape our formation into the United States, but its roots are deep in the coal, steel and railroad industries. Living in the Keystone State puts you among historic locations that paved the way for the development of so much of this country.

It’s a lofty reputation to hold up, but staying grounded in industry and opportunity has enabled the state to maintain itself as an attractive spot for those looking for employment. With affordable housing across the state, plenty of colleges and universities and a slew of historic landmarks, why wouldn’t you want to call this northern state home?

For all these reasons, the best places to live in Pennsylvania stretch from one side of the state to other. Some cities are easily recognizable, while others you may hear about for the very first time. Regardless, you’ve got plenty of choices when it comes to finding the perfect home in Pennsylvania.

Allentown, PA

Allentown, PA

  • Population: 125,845
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,885
  • 2-BR median rent: $2,027
  • Median home price: $187.750
  • Median household income: $41,167
  • Walk score: 59/100

A rich Dutch history gives Allentown a unique look and feel. Situated on the Lehigh River, this busy city is full of beautiful parks and gardens. It offers up a diverse collection of inhabitants with plenty to do to accommodate any lifestyle. There are plenty of job opportunities and thriving districts for the arts, theater and culture.

A day out and about in Allentown isn’t complete without a walk through the Allentown Art Museum, The Liberty Bell Museum, America On Wheels Museum and more. If the season is right, grab tickets to see the infamous Lehigh Valley IronPigs AAA baseball team go a few innings as well.

Bethel Park, PA

Bethel Park, PA

  • Population: 33,577
  • 1-BR median rent: $975
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,099
  • Median home price: $240,000
  • Median household income: $79,894
  • Walk score: 46/100

A Pittsburgh suburb, Bethel Park combines affordable housing with excellent schools and an abundance of green space. The city’s population is a combination of retirees and young professionals, but it’s also a great place for families. In addition to the parks, you’ll find plenty of bars, coffee shops and retail outlets.

With less than 30 minutes between Pittsburgh and Bethel Park, the town draws in those still commuting in for work, but who are looking for a quieter place to end each day. On weekends, locals will stay put and enjoy everything from the Montour Trail to the Hundred Acres Manor.

Camp Hill, PA

Camp Hill, PA

Source: Hill
  • Population: 8,130
  • 1-BR median rent: $890
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,422
  • Median home price: $225,900
  • Median household income: $87,008
  • Walk score: 34/100

One of the best places to live in Pennsylvania is a small city along the banks of the Susquehanna River. Camp Hill gives you a nice amount of waterfront to explore. The town is also home to the northernmost engagement of the Gettysburg campaign during the Civil War. To honor this piece of history, you can follow the West Shore. There you’ll find historic buildings and battle sites.

For outdoor lovers, Camp Hill is a perfect home base to access hiking, biking, skiing and water activities. There are also plenty of local parks for a simple stroll.

Collegeville, PA

Collegeville, PA

  • Population: 5,043
  • 1-BR median rent: $2,060
  • 2-BR median rent: $2,655
  • Median home price: $380,000
  • Median household income: $112,500
  • Walk score: 44/100

As a suburb of Philadelphia, Collegeville got its straightforward name from Ursinus College. Academic life still plays an important role here, although the city is also a popular destination for a variety of businesses.

While there’s plenty of shopping and plenty for college students, the area’s top feature is the Perkiomen Trail. This 20-mile path follows the river, connecting many parks and historical sites. You can walk, bike and even ride horseback along the path.

Harrisburg, PA

Harrisburg, PA

  • Population: 50,099
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,137
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,407
  • Median home price: $199,025
  • Median household income: $39,685
  • Walk score: 55/100

As the state capital, Harrisburg is one of the best places to live in Pennsylvania as much for its location within the state as for its history. Living here puts you near the Susquehanna River, Appalachian Trail and the cities of Hershey and Gettysburg. You can easily sample a little nature and history with so much close by.

Within Harrisburg itself, you have access to the city’s own island. Here you’ll find a beach, riverboat, arcade and more. It’s a great stop during the day. When the sun goes down, keep yourself occupied with the upscale bars and restaurants downtown.

Hershey, PA

Hershey, PA

  • Population: 13,858
  • 1-BR median rent: $915
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,075
  • Median home price: $339,900
  • Median household income: $69,688
  • Walk score: 57/100

Yes, it’s named after that chocolate bar. Hershey is often referred to as one of the sweetest places on earth because, to this day, Hershey’s still calls the city home. This not only means a variety of job opportunities working with chocolate but plenty to lure in tourists. The city also boasts Hersheypark, which has rides and a zoo, Hersey Gardens and Hersheypark Stadium.

Although the city grew up around a single company, today, it contains all the attractive elements of a smaller town one could want. Step away from the more touristy areas to find scenic hiking trails, museums, restaurants and shops.

Lancaster, PA

Lancaster, PA

  • Population: 58,039
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,269
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,453
  • Median home price: $225,625
  • Median household income: $45,514
  • Walk score: 56/100

Situated alongside Amish Country, Lancaster is home to the Pennsylvania Dutch. While you can tour Amish attractions and even immerse yourself into the lifestyle for a special experience, locals have plenty of other activities to occupy their time.

As one of the best places to live near Philadelphia, the downtown area is full of shops, theaters, restaurants and art galleries. Underground caverns provide a little adventure for those seeking something different. You can also take a ride on the country’s oldest operating railroad or see a different side of the city’s history with a ghost tour.

Perkasie, PA

Perkasie, PA

  • Population: 9,120
  • 1-BR median rent: $995
  • 2-BR median rent: $995
  • Median home price: $425,000
  • Median household income: $77,420
  • Walk score: 38/100

Another commuter town, Perkasie is one of the best places to live in Pennsylvania because it’s a great small town that’s only about an hour away from downtown Philadelphia. Once known for its factory that made baseballs for the major leagues, Perkasie today has managed to grow while holding onto its rural appeal.

A fantastic park system and revitalized downtown area provide the perfect combination of hometown activities for residents. There’s no shortage of restaurants, shops, music venues and more.

Philadelphia, PA

Philadelphia, PA

  • Population: 1,603,797
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,872
  • 2-BR median rent: $2,102
  • Median home price: $260,000
  • Median household income: $45,927
  • Walk score: 84/100

The most populated and well-known city in Pennsylvania, Philadelphia definitely has one of the rooms where it happened. Not only is it the original home of the Liberty Bell but it also housed our Founding Fathers as they signed the Declaration of Independence into being.

Popular in its own right, Philadelphia offers additional appeal for its proximity to New York City. Hop a train into the city for work or a weekend of fun. You can also stay close to home and snack on an authentic Philly cheesesteak as you enjoy the art and history of downtown. There’s no shortage of 300-year-old buildings, cultural attractions, quaint parks, bars, restaurants and shops.

Pittsburgh, PA

Pittsburgh, PA

  • Population: 302,971
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,435
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,890
  • Median home price: $217,000
  • Median household income: $48,711
  • Walk score: 69/100

Bookending the state, Pittsburgh is the most populated city on the opposite end from Philly. Known as the City of Bridges, Pittsburgh has long shared a connection with steel, however, the industry is only part of what makes this area so special. As a highly walkable city, you can easily explore on foot but wear comfortable shoes. With over 712 sets of city-maintained steps, you’re going to get a great workout.

If walking isn’t your thing, don’t worry, Pittsburgh has you covered. For sports fans, this affordable town is home to professional baseball, football and hockey teams. For those looking toward higher education, the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University are the notable tip of Pittsburgh’s collegiate iceberg.

Reading, PA

Reading, PA

  • Population: 95,112
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,475
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,540
  • Median home price: $160,000
  • Median household income: $32,176
  • Walk score: 69/100

Named after the Reading Railroad, which all you Monopoly players should know well, the town of Reading sits in the southeastern part of the state. Today, it’s uniquely known for the variety of pretzel companies that call the area home. Reading is also a combination of culture and history. It’s easy to divide your day between looking at an Egyptian mummy in the Reading Public Museum and hiking through the Nolde Forest. You can also check out Daniel Boone’s birthplace for some real American history.

With plenty of affordable, suburban housing, residents get drawn into Reading for the charms of the city itself, as well as its proximity to Philadelphia. These two cities on the list of best places to live in Pennsylvania are only about 60 miles apart.

Scranton, PA

Scranton, PA

  • Population: 76,328
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,184
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,095
  • Median home price: $149,000
  • Median household income: $40,608
  • Walk score: 58/100

Laid out more like a traditional small town, Scranton has tight-knit neighborhoods clustered around a thriving downtown. You’ll find trendy restaurants, boutiques and art galleries nestled among the historic Lackawanna County Courthouse building.

Taking into account its high population of young professionals and families, Scranton caters to its residents with plenty of special activities, including cultural festivals and monthly art walks. Scranton also pays homage to its nickname, the Electric City, with The Electric City Trolley Station and Museum. The first streetcars, successfully powered by electricity, ran here in the 1880s.

Willow Grove, PA

Willow Grove, PA

Source: Pointe
  • Population: 13,730
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,907
  • 2-BR median rent: $2,230
  • Median home price: $300,000
  • Median household income: $79,162
  • Walk score: 57/100

A small town with big fun, Willow Grove offers residents a quiet, laidback community that doesn’t lack the amenities you’d want close by. There are plenty of shopping and dining options that you’d expect to find in bigger cities.

As a Philadelphia suburb, Willow Grove has the nearby city going for it as far as activity goes, but it’s not without its own set of museums and historic sites to occupy residents. Visit the 42-acre grounds and home at Graeme Park or check out the indoor playground at Urban Air Adventure Park for something really different.

Find an apartment for rent in Pennsylvania

The best places to live in Pennsylvania spread to all four corners of the state. Each city has its own charm, beauty and history to explore, not to mention job opportunities and affordable housing.

Once you decide what area is right for you, begin the hunt. Look for apartments for rent in Pennsylvania to see all your options. Then, start narrowing things down by location, amenities and more. You’ll find the perfect place to call home in no time.

The rent information included in this summary is based on a median calculation of multifamily rental property inventory on Apartment Guide and as of December 2021.
Median home prices are from Redfin as of December 2021.
Population and median household income are from the U.S. Census Bureau.
The information in this article is for illustrative purposes only. This data herein does not constitute a pricing guarantee or financial advice related to the rental market.



Tax Day 2022: When’s the Last Day to File Taxes?

Most Americans must file their federal tax returns for the 2021 tax year by April 18, 2022. Note that we say “most Americans.” Taxpayers in two states have until April 19 to submit their 1040s to the IRS. Victims of certain natural disaster also get more time to file, with varying dates depending on when the disaster hit.

In any case, if for some reason you can’t file your federal tax return on time, it’s relatively easy to get an automatic six-month extension to October 17, 2022, by filing Form 4868 or making an electronic tax payment. But you must act by the original due date for your return, whether that’s April 18, April 19, or some other date.

Keep in mind, however, that an extension to file doesn’t extend the time to pay your tax. If you don’t pay up by the original due date, you’ll owe interest on the unpaid tax. You could also be hit with additional penalties for filing and paying late.

Why Are Taxes Due April 18 Instead of April 15 This Year?

As most people know, Tax Day is usually on April 15, unless it falls on a weekend or holiday, in which case it’s pushed back to the next available business day. April 15 is on a Friday this year, so the weekend rule doesn’t apply. However, Emancipation Day is being observed in the District of Columbia on April 15. The holiday honors the end of slavery in Washington, D.C. Since April 15 is a legal holiday in D.C., the IRS can’t require tax returns be filed that day. The next business day is April 18 – so that becomes Tax Day in 2022 for most people.

Tax Filing Deadline for Maine and Massachusetts Residents

Residents of Maine and Massachusetts get an extra day – until April 19 – to file their federal income tax return. Why? Because Patriots’ Day, an official holiday in Maine and Massachusetts that commemorates Revolutionary War battles, falls on April 18 this year. So, for the same reason Tax Day is moved from April 15 to April 18 for most people (i.e., a local holiday), the IRS can’t set the tax filing and payment due date on April 18 for taxpayers in those two states. As a result, the deadline is shifted to the next business day for Maine and Massachusetts residents, which is April 19.

Natural Disaster Victims Get Tax Filing and Payment Extensions

If the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) declares a disaster area following a natural disaster, the IRS usually jumps in with tax relief for the disaster victims in the form of tax filing and payment extensions. In the case of certain recent natural disasters, the April 18 (or April 19) tax filing and payment deadline has been extended for individuals and businesses residing or located in the disaster area.

So far, victims of the following natural disasters have been granted extensions that push back this year’s federal personal income tax filing and payment deadline:

Additional extensions may be announced later that impact this year’s tax return filing due date.

State Tax Return Due Dates

Don’t forget about your state tax return. Most states synch their income tax return deadline with the federal tax due date – but there are some states that have different deadlines. Check with the state tax agency where you live to find out when your state tax return is due.


The Best Places to Live in Virginia in 2022

Virginia is for lovers — or so the saying goes. It’s near impossible not to fall in love with a state that contains so much U.S. history, as many former U.S. presidents were born here and the first Thanksgiving took place here. Plus, it has charming small towns and access to both the mountains and the ocean.

Virginia forests cover over 60 percent of the state for the outdoor enthusiast, making it easy to be one with nature on the weekends. It also attracts young professionals to its many universities and top military, business and manufacturing jobs.

Four of the wealthiest counties in the U.S. are in Virginia, thanks to higher spending power. Keep on reading to get to know the best places to live in Virginia in 2022, including one of its biggest cities, Virginia Beach.

Alexandria, VA

Alexandria, VA

  • Population: 159,467
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,951
  • 2-BR median rent: $2,372
  • Median home price: $598,500
  • Median household income: $100,939
  • Walk Score: 62/100

Located right at the state’s northern tip, Alexandria borders the Potomac River with Washington, D.C., just across the water. Old Town Alexandria, the city’s historic area, showcases Colonial-era architecture that takes you right back in time. Walk the cobblestone streets to the many museums and restaurants and learn more about George Washington’s hometown.

Living in Alexandria makes it convenient for those that work in the nation’s capital but enjoy a quieter, more affordable suburb. You can rent a one-bedroom for $1,952 per month on average and enjoy a stroll through Huntley Meadows Park on the weekends.

Arlington, VA

Arlington, VA

  • Population: 238,643
  • 1-BR median rent: $2,315
  • 2-BR median rent: $3,125
  • Median home price: $675,000
  • Median household income: $120,071
  • Walk Score: 81/100

Arlington’s strategic location just across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., makes it an excellent option for those working in the nation’s capital and one of the best places to live in Virginia. Average rents for a one-bedroom hover around $2,315 per month if you want to move to Arlington. Employers in the city mainly focus on the federal government, including the Pentagon.

While the rent prices are higher, the city’s walkability and outdoor spaces like the W&OD Railroad Trail make up for it. You can also visit the Arlington National Cemetery and other wartime monuments nearby, as the city had a large part in the nation’s wars.

Charlottesville, VA

Charlottesville, VA

  • Population: 46,553
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,417
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,600
  • Median home price: N/A
  • Median household income:$59,471
  • Walk Score: 47/100

Home to the University of Virginia, Charlottesville is more than a college town. Charlottesville has more than 40 wineries along the Monticello Wine Trail, thanks to the perfect combination of soil and climate.

If you’re more of a hiker, don’t miss the trails at Shenandoah National Park, right by the Blue Ridge Mountains. In Historic Court Square, you can find the town’s first taverns along with the Live Arts Theatre, the art center and other museums. On average, you can find one-bedroom apartments in Charlottesville for $1,417 per month.

Fredricksburg, VA

Fredricksburg, VA

  • Population: 27,982
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,630
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,941
  • Median home price: $377,500
  • Median household income: $65,641
  • Walk Score: 29/100

Located off Interstate 95, Fredericksburg is the perfect location for those commuting to either Washington, D.C., or Richmond. The preserved buildings from around the turn of the century now house restaurants, antique shops and small retail shops right in the center of town. Craft breweries and distilleries have recently opened in the area, as well.

Head to the Rappahannock River with your kayak and enjoy floating downstream when the weather is nice. Living in Fredericksburg brings a quiet, charming community, as well as convenience to your 9-to-5.

Newport News, VA

Newport News, VA

  • Population: 186,247
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,155
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,257
  • Median home price: $237,250
  • Median household income: $53,215
  • Walk Score: 44/100

Newport News is right along the banks of James River, near the Hampton Roads harbor. The city is central to several amenities offered in Williamsburg and Virginia Beach, too — just a short drive away. The city has a rich history dating back to the Revolutionary War and the founding of Jamestown so you can tour all sorts of attractions and museums. You can also enjoy hiking, camping and more nearby at the York River State Park.

Prominent employers in the area focus on transportation, mainly railroad and aviation. You can find an apartment in Newport News for $1,155 per month on average for a one-bedroom.

Norfolk, VA

Norfolk, VA

  • Population: 238,005
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,451
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,641
  • Median home price: $265,000
  • Median household income: $51,590
  • Walk Score: 54/100

Conveniently located near Virginia Beach, Norfolk has many ports that have helped make its economy one of the fastest-growing in the U.S. The suburb features several malls, a thriving performing arts center, the Virginia Opera and the critically-acclaimed Chrysler Museum of Art. Nearby, you can also see the world’s largest battleship, the USS Wisconsin.

You’re a hop and a skip from the beach and several state parks like False Cape State Park for hiking and boating. It’s easy to find a home in Norfolk — you can rent a one-bedroom apartment for $1,451 per month on average.

Richmond, VA

Richmond, VA

  • Population: 226,610
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,376
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,641
  • Median home price: $290,750
  • Median household income: $47,250
  • Walk Score: 57/100

One of the oldest major cities in the U.S. and one of the best places to live in Virginia, Richmond now serves as the capital of the state. Right in the middle of the city, you can enjoy a stroll through Libby Hill Park in the historic Church Hill neighborhood. This park is one of three original parks created while Virginia was a colony.

You can also walk in the Fan District and enjoy the mansions and row houses built at the end of the last century. The city is also home to six Fortune 500 companies with a growing economy. You can live in Richmond for $1,376 per month on average for a one-bedroom apartment.

Roanoke, VA

Roanoke, VA

  • Population: 100,011
  • 1-BR median rent: $800
  • 2-BR median rent: $946
  • Median home price: N/A
  • Median household income: $44,230
  • Walk Score: 48/100

Nestled in the south part of Shenandoah Valley, Roanoke is right by the beauty of the Blue Ridge mountains. The small town turns on the charm with its many festivals like the Strawberry Festival, Dickens of a Christmas and the Kite Festival. The downtown area boasts a farmer’s market, several museums and a zoo.

The Historic Roanoke City Market is the oldest market in Virginia that has been continuously operating since 1882. Healthcare, transportation and banking are the primary industries in the area. You can find an apartment in Roanoke for $800 per month on average for a one-bedroom.

Virginia Beach, VA

Virginia Beach, VA

  • Population: 459,470
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,309
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,417
  • Median home price: $321,750
  • Median household income: $76,610
  • Walk Score: 47/100

One of the biggest cities in the state, Virginia Beach boasts a three-mile boardwalk that’s a sight as the afternoon sun sets. The beachfront area encompasses about 40 city blocks, with small restaurants, hotels and family-friendly activities. The Virginia Beach Art Center showcases local artists’ works so you can grab custom items.

It’s not all beach all the time. Virginia Beach also has access to some of the best schools, especially in the Bayfront neighborhood. Many large employers have headquarters in the area, including insurance and the federal government.

If that all sounds good, you can find places to live in Virginia Beach for $1,309 per month on average for a one-bedroom.

Williamsburg, VA

Williamsburg, VA

  • Population: 15,425
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,705
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,469
  • Median home price: $404,000
  • Median household income: $57,463
  • Walk Score: 30/100

The self-proclaimed “Colonial Capital of Virginia,” Williamsburg truly feels like you were back in the 18th century. The city’s intentional restoration and preservation of structures and architectures are seen throughout. The Historic Triangle, a hub for several historic sites and museums, is a fun stop for landmark lovers.

Williamsburg is also home to the College of William and Mary, the second-oldest institution for higher education in the U.S.

The York River State Park offers more than 30 miles of hiking trails, kayak and mountain biking opportunities. If the colonial city charmed you and you’re ready to find an apartment in Williamsburg, you can rent one for $1,705 per month on average.

Find an apartment for rent in Virginia

The Old Dominion state has a beautiful coastline and a rich history as one of the 13 original colonies. Many nature opportunities abound thanks to the Appalachian Mountains, along with a strong economy in Virginia.

Whatever you’re looking for, one of these best places to live in Virginia will match your lifestyle — from big cities to small towns. Thinking of moving to one of these cities? Check out all the apartments for rent in Virginia right here.

The rent information included in this summary is based on a median calculation of multifamily rental property inventory on Apartment Guide and as of December 2021.
Median home prices are from Redfin as of December 2021.
Population and median household income are from the U.S. Census Bureau.
The information in this article is for illustrative purposes only. This data herein does not constitute a pricing guarantee or financial advice related to the rental market.




How the Latest Biden/House Tax Proposal Affects Millionaire Retirees

Back in November 2017, I did a deep dive into the House version of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA). It’s hard to identify anything I’ve done that was a bigger waste of time. The final version of the bill signed into law by former President Trump had almost no resemblance to its initial form. Today the Build Back Better proposal has also gone through multiple twists and turns — and probably will continue to do so. This time, however, the House version is more likely to be close to its final form. As I write, it is also possible that this will play out in the Senate in January. Happy New Year!

Here’s the good news for the wealthy: If you have $1 million to $5 million, this bill is not going to have a significant impact on your finances unless you are about to sell a business or hit the lottery. But here are three items still in the bill that you should be aware of: 

1. Increase of the SALT deduction

Unlike the many tax hikes in the bill for the wealthy, this provision is likely to reduce your taxes. The TCJA put a cap of $10K on the amount of state income taxes and personal property taxes you can deduct. In high-tax, high-property-value areas, this cap significantly reduced the amount of itemized deductions you could claim. This bill raises that cap to $80K. That’s great news for retirees who live in valuable homes or have significant retirement income subject to state income taxes.

Example: If your itemized deductions increase by $10K due to the SALT cap expansion, your taxable income will drop by the same amount. Your tax bill will decrease by your [marginal rate * $10K]. So if you were in the 32% marginal tax bracket, you would owe $3,200 less in taxes.

2. Wash sale rules would apply to cryptocurrencies

My mom, who is in her 70s and largely hands-off with her investments, inquired about Bitcoin earlier in the year. That was my sign that cryptocurrencies are here to stay, and we know that many of our clients are investing in them. What I think many retirees don’t realize is that there is a way to take advantage of a current loophole until (if) this bill is passed.

Cryptos are extremely volatile. If you have a bad Bitcoin day, you can sell your position, claim the loss on your tax return, and reinvest the same or next day. With stocks, bonds, mutual funds, etc., you must be out of that position for more than 30 days to be able to claim that loss.

Many experts think that this contributes to the volatility of the asset class as there is actually a tax advantage to selling when everyone else does, leading to self-perpetuating volatility. Should the Build Back Better plan as currently written pass, cryptos will follow the same wash sale rules as other publicly traded securities.

3. Reduced estate exemption (but not until 2026)

Full disclosure: This reduction actually stems from the expiration of the TCJA, not as part of the Build Back Better act. I imagine this all seems like Greek, but, as a refresher, the exemption is the amount you can pass to beneficiaries without owing federal estate tax. The TCJA doubled this amount from roughly $5.5 million to $11 million per person, meaning that very few people have to worry about it. Many of the earlier versions of Build Back Better accelerated the reduction. However, the latest version does not.

Assuming that the estate tax exemption in the final bill is exactly what the House passed, the reduction of the exemption amount would come in 2026. While the vast majority of Americans would still be just fine, many of you may not be. When you add your home, your investments, etc., that number can climb quickly. Add compounding interest for the next 20 years and you may need a different level of estate planning.

Bottom line: This bill has been defanged for almost all but the uberwealthy. If you’re wondering why Elon Musk is selling Tesla stock, it’s not because of a Twitter war with Bernie Sanders; it’s because he’s betting his tax bill will be lower today than in the future. For those like Elon, it’s a safe bet. The rest of us need to wait and see.

Wealth Manager, Campbell Wealth Management

Evan Beach is a Certified Financial Planner™ professional and an Accredited Wealth Management Adviser. His knowledge is concentrated on the issues that arise in retirement and how to plan for them. Beach teaches retirement planning courses at several local universities and continuing education courses to CPAs. He has been quoted in and published by Yahoo Finance, CNBC,, Fox Business, Bloomberg, and U.S. News and World Report, among others.


Dogs of the Dow 2022: 10 Dividend Stocks to Watch

The start of the new year means a fresh chance for yield-seeking investors to get in on one of the easiest market strategies in the book:

The Dogs of the Dow.

Investment manager Michael B. O’Higgins popularized the idea in his 1991 book Beating the Dow. And it doesn’t get much simpler: At the beginning of the year, buy the 10 highest-yielding Dow Jones Industrial Average components in equal amounts. Hold them until the end of the year. Rinse. Repeat.

While the Dogs of the Dow sounds like a dividend strategy, it has its roots in value. O’Higgins’ proposed that firms with high dividends relative to their stock price in the index would be near the bottom of their business cycle and represent bargains compared to components with lower dividend yields.

And why the DJIA? The Dow Jones has long been considered one of the leading stock-market gauges of America’s economy. While the S&P 500 has more components and is more diversified, the Dow still covers most sectors. Not to mention, its components are extremely liquid and there are reams of research available on all 30.

But buyer beware. While the Dogs of the Dow have posted a respectable 8.7% annual total return since 2000, the Dogs have trailed the DJIA in each of the past four years. Analysts have proposed that the shift to growth investing has hurt the strategy’s performance; but with value stocks predicted to regain their mojo, the Dogs could again have their day.

Without further ado, here are the 2022 Dogs of the Dow.

Data is as of Dec. 31, 2021, the date on which the Dogs of the Dow are identified. Dividend yields are calculated by annualizing the most recent payout and dividing by the share price. Stocks listed in reverse order of yield.

1 of 10


Intel building signIntel building sign
  • Sector: Technology
  • Market value: $209.5 billion
  • Dividend yield: 2.7%

Oh, how the tables have turned.

A decade ago, Intel (INTC, $51.50) was the leading name in chips, while Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and Nvidia (NVDA) were promising yet still relatively minor players – combined, the two were worth less than a tenth of Intel by market capitalization.

But Nvidia is now several times Nvidia’s size, and AMD isn’t too far behind Intel’s $210 billion market value. That’s because in recent years, Intel has missed the boat on a variety of fronts. From mobile computing and productions capabilities for faster/smaller chipsets, Intel has stumbled … and its rivals have eaten its lunch.

But while Intel might be down, it’s hardly not out.

Intel’s Alder Lake 12th-generation core processor chips have started to eat away from AMD’s high-end processors, and Intel recently announced the latest line of Alder Lake chips that include what the company says is “the fastest mobile processor. Ever.” The next two years should see its 13th-gen (Raptor Lake) and 14th-gen (Meteor Lake) chips come live.

Intel also could squeeze some value out of Mobileye, the autonomous vehicle-chip stock that it acquired back in 2017. INTC in December announced its intent to spin the company off in an initial public offering (IPO) while maintaining controlling interest – allowing Intel to enjoy both an immediate windfall while still realizing gains as Mobileye grows.

In keeping with the Dogs of the Dow’s value bent, Intel trades at just 14 times the coming year’s earnings estimates, significantly less than both the S&P 500 (21) and technology sector (28). INTC’s 2.7% yield is also much better than what you typically get out of tech shares.

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Coca-Cola With Coffee can sitting in a pocket of snowCoca-Cola With Coffee can sitting in a pocket of snow
  • Sector: Consumer staples
  • Market value: $255.8 billion
  • Dividend yield: 2.8%

In today’s low-carb and keto-friendly world, sugary soft drinks and sodas are practically verboten. And in recent years, that has largely muted the returns of giant Coca-Cola (KO, $59.21), which has produced roughly half the total returns (price plus dividends) of the S&P 500 over the past half-decade.

But KO is doing a better job of ensuring it has the goods to shift with consumer tastes.

Coca-Cola has spent a few years moving its portfolio into healthier options. That includes teas, milk and sparkling water, among others. It also unveiled new zero-sugar versions of soda brands such as Sprite and Coca-Cola, which fueled about 25% of the Coca-Cola brand’s growth in the third quarter.

KO is also looking toward athletics and fitness fanatics for growth. Back in November, Coca-Cola purchased sports beverage group BodyArmor – which it already had a 15% stake in – for $5.6 billion. This instantly gives it a meaningful presence in the industry. “BodyArmor is currently the #2 sports drink in the category in measured retail channels, growing at about 50% to drive more than $1.4 billion in retail sales,” the company says.

And you don’t get more dependable than Coca-Cola’s dividend, which has been growing uninterrupted for 59 consecutive years. That easily puts it among the longest-tenured Dividend Aristocrats.

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Scotch tapeScotch tape
  • Sector: Industrials
  • Market value: 102.4 billion
  • Dividend yield: 3.3%

Unlike most of Wall Street, 3M (MMM, $177.63) was already getting crushed by the time the COVID bear market came around. The U.S.-China trade war and other difficulties were already weighing on the industrial name when COVID cramped demand for many of the company’s products (except its N95 masks and filtering division, of course).

But 2022 could be another year of recovery for 3M.

3M makes more than 60,000 products, from consumer products such as sponges and packing tape to industrial diamond-coated grinding disks and orthodontic supplies. In normal times, this wide product portfolio provides insulation from specific shocks to its various businesses. And it allows 3M to enjoy in numerous facets of a broad economic recovery.

The company grew third-quarter revenues 7.1% year-over-year and generated more than $1.5 billion in free cash flow. 3M is benefiting from continued cost cutting and development programs, as well as from selling chronically underperforming business lines.

3M’s forward P/E of 16 makes it one of the more expensive 2022 Dogs of the Dow, and yet it still trades for much cheaper than the S&P 500 and industrial sector (20) alike.

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Amgen needleAmgen needle
  • Sector: Healthcare
  • Market value: $126.7 billion
  • Dividend yield: 3.5%

Patent expirations are a hurdle most pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have to face, and that’s no different for established biotech Amgen (AMGN, $224.97). Top drugs such as Enbrel, Neulasta and Otezla will fall off the patent cliff in coming years.

The good news? The earliest drug in that cohort to fall off patent won’t do so until 2025. And often, U.S. drug manufacturers can kick the can down the road by making minor changes to drugs or adding more indications for the therapy. Not to mention, expirations go both ways – AbbVie’s (ABBV) blockbuster drug Humira is set to lose patent protection in the U.S. in 2023, and Amgen has already gained approval to sell Amjevita, a biosimilar form of the drug.

Another big reason AMGN shareholders shouldn’t panic is its potential-packed pipeline. The biotechnology firm has more than 20 drugs in Phase 2 or 3 trials. And recently, the FDA approved Amgen severe-asthma medication Tezspire, a potential blockbuster drug.

Nearer-term, another reason to like Amgen is its dividend. Namely, it’ll be 10% bigger in 2022, at $1.94 per share quarterly, the company announced in December.

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Merck buildingMerck building
  • Sector: Healthcare
  • Market value: $193.6 billion
  • Dividend yield: 3.6%

Merck (MRK, $76.64) has been doing a lot of evolving in recent years. It has gone on an impressive pipeline-buying spree, which continued in late November with its $11.5 billion buy of Acceleron. And Merck also recently spun off its legacy generic drug and off-patent medicines into a separate company, Organon (OGN).

The resulting Merck is one of the top growth-oriented drug producers in the world.

Sales of oncology blockbuster drug Keytruda jumped 22% year-over-year during Q3, to $4.5 billion. Some analysts believe Keytruda will soon be the world’s best-selling drug, overtaking AbbVie’s Humira. That’s in part because Merck intends to seek approval for other indications of the drug. But Merck has other major drugs in the tank, including Gardasil, whose sales grew 68% to $2 billion in Q3. And its pipeline includes dozens of products in Phase 2 and 3 trials.

A low forward P/E of around 10, and a yield well above 3%, make MRK a model example of the income and value found in the Dogs of the Dow.

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Walgreens Boots Alliance

Walgreens pharmacyWalgreens pharmacy
  • Sector: Consumer staples
  • Market value: $45.2 billion
  • Dividend yield: 3.7%

Walgreens Boots Alliance (WBA, $52.16) wasn’t the COVID winner you might have thought. COVID prompted a shift in the company’s sales mix to lower-margin items, and it dragged heavily on foot traffic in the company’s Boots U.K. stores.

So, like many other retailers, an escape from the pandemic should help Walgreens, which used COVID as an opportunity to cut nearly $2 billion in costs from its operations.

Partnerships will be essential too. For instance, Walgreens has been opening branded primary-care clinics with VillageMD, who staffs these locations with physicians, allowing them to cater to more than ear infections and sniffles. Walgreens plans to open 1,000 of these clinics at its stores by 2027.

Also in play is the potential divestiture of its Boots business; several reports in December said Walgreens was mulling the move.

With foot traffic on the rebound and new avenues for growth opening up, WBA could be a productive Dow Dog. A forward P/E of around 10 doesn’t hurt, either.

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A Chevron gas stationA Chevron gas station
  • Sector: Energy
  • Market value: $226.2 billion
  • Dividend yield: 4.6%

COVID was downright miserable for the energy sector – even integrated oil-and-gas giants such as Chevron (CVX, $117.35).

However, while numerous companies closed, and many more were forced to cut jobs, slash capital expenditures and pull back on their dividends, Chevron managed to keep its dividend running and even used an all-stock deal to acquire Noble Energy.

Chevron’s acquisition of Noble at fire-sale prices boosted its overall presence in low-cost fields in the Permian Basin, allowing the company to better leverage a rebound in energy prices, which came in spades in 2021.

Energy stocks of all sorts went bananas in 2021, making it the S&P 500’s top sector. Chevron returned 46% amid a complete rebound in its operations. For instance, its third quarter saw Chevron earn $6.1 billion versus the $207 million it lost in the year-ago quarter.

However, despite its massive 2021 move, CVX stock yet again finds itself among the Dogs of the Dow.

Chevron’s 4.6% current yield isn’t as generous as the 6% or so it offered at this same time last year, but it’s still one of the top yields in the Dow. Meanwhile, it’s value-priced at just 12 times earnings estimates.

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International Business Machines

IBM buildingIBM building
  • Sector: Technology
  • Market value: $119.9 billion
  • Dividend yield: 4.9%

International Business Machines (IBM, $133.66) has been nothing short of a disappointment in recent years.

Big Blue has struggled to remain relevant in the age of cloud computing while rivals chipped away market share. At one point, the firm recorded 22 consecutive quarters of declining revenue, then restarted that streak shortly after breaking it. Even including dividends, IBM shares returned just 1% between 2017 and 2021.

But IBM might finally be getting itself together.

Its 2019 purchases of open-source software firm Red Hat boosted the company’s operations. Fast-forward to 2021, and the company cut loose some dead weight, spinning off its legacy IT infrastructure services as Kyndryl (KD).

A now leaner, meaner IBM is focused once again on growth.

We saw signs of this in the company’s third quarter, where overall cloud revenues grew 14% year-over-year. It’ll still be a while before IBM can report its post-separation numbers, but analysts are generally expecting IBM to start heading in the right direction once again.

Better still: IBM didn’t give away any of the dividend game with Kyndryl. International Business Machines remains a Dividend Aristocrat whose 4.9% yield is among the best of 2022’s Dogs of the Dow.

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Verizon Communications

Verizon storeVerizon store
  • Sector: Communication services
  • Market value: $215.1 billion
  • Dividend yield: 4.9%

Verizon (VZ, $51.96) spent the last few years trying to build out a communications and media empire. Wireless communication has become a commodity; there isn’t much difference between carriers, plans or offerings at this point. The U.S. market is saturated. The major carriers can’t rely on their legacy businesses for growth.

But Verizon’s ventures, which included buying Yahoo! And other media properties, simply didn’t pan out. Several write-offs later, and VZ is just getting back to basics: improving its giant network and providing services that utilize said network.

The 5G transformation is a major tailwind for Verizon. It’s not just consumer devices; smart vehicles, the Internet of Things and other applications will be a big driver for its network. Also, Verizon has started to transition toward more enterprise customers, which includes fleet management software and applications to data security. These should also provide a runway for growth.

A forward P/E under 10 and a nearly 5% dividend, meanwhile, provide some of the best features of the Dogs of the Dow.

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Dow buildingDow building
  • Sector: Materials
  • Market value: $42.0 billion
  • Dividend yield: 4.9%

Dow has had a wild and transformative few years that saw it spin off assets before merging with rival DuPont (DD), then the chemical giant split into three separate firms. The remaining Dow contains the materials sciences chemicals, including adhesives, polyurethanes, silicones, resins and waxes, among others.

Like most other materials stocks, Dow struggled right alongside the broader economy during the COVID recession. For instance, during Q3 2020, the company lost 4 cents per share on $9.7 billion in sales. By Q3 2021, Dow had recovered considerably, posting $2.23 per share in earnings on $14.8 billion in revenues.

The omicron and future variants could throw more hurdles at the Dow recovery, but in general, a growing global economy should mean continued growth in demand for Dow’s products.

You can buy into that recovery on the cheap through Dow. Shares trade at a svelte nine times future earnings and yield nearly 5% at today’s prices. That’s roughly four times the income you’ll pull from the broader market, and at a much better valuation. A fair dividend payout ratio of 45% of earnings leaves Dow ample room to raise that payout further.

Aaron Levitt was long AMGN and MRK as of this writing.


30 Cincinnati Facts That Only Real Locals Know are True

Oh, Cincinnati, the home of Skyline Chili and flying pigs. The land of Steven Spielberg and Play-Doh.

Over 300,000 residents love this city and they aren’t afraid to say it. Here are some interesting Cinicannti facts that only those who really love the city know about (so don’t tell!).

30 Interesting Cincinnati facts only residents know about

1. Originally, the name of the city was Losantville. However, in 1790, the city changed to Cincinnati, after Lucius Cincinnatus, a Roman statesman and military leader who lived in c. 519 – 430 B.C.

2. Cincinnati was the first major city founded after the American Revolution. It’s sometimes called the most “purely American” city because of this. It was also the first city founded inland after the American Revolution!

3. Steven Spielberg is from Cincinnati. The famous filmmaker, known for “E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial,” the “Indiana Jones” series, “Minority Report,” “War of The Worlds” and many more, was born in Cincinnati in 1946.

4. Cincinnati has a rich German, Polish and Hungarian heritage, many of whom immigrated to Cincinnati in the 1800s. There were German schools and newspapers printed in German. The first Mayor of Cincinnati, David Ziegler, was a German immigrant.

Octoberfest spread

Octoberfest spread

5. Due to its rich German culture, the biggest Oktoberfest in America is in Cincinnati. It’s known as Oktoberfest- Zinzinnati®.

6. A Cincinnati fact is that they love chili so much, they have their own kind: Skyline Chili. If you live in Cincinnati, you know about Skyline Chili. No beans, just meat, spices and water. It’s simple, but with a twist — the seasoning contains a hint of chocolate and cinnamon, for a slight hint of sweetness. Get it served straight in a bowl, on a bun or even over spaghetti.

7. The backyard classic game of Cornhole was born in Cincinnati. Talk about a (corn) hole-in-one!

8. The Cincinnati Music Hall has such a history of hauntings and ghost sightings, that “Ghost Hunters” featured it in a special Halloween episode in 2014. Paranormal lovers will delight in this haunted hall — there are plenty of after-hours haunted tours available to attend. Or, go tour on your own and maybe you’ll get spooked!

9. Cincinnati is an American city based on freedom and equality, as it was a prominent and key stop on the Underground Railroad.

10. Cincinnati is a city with many nicknames: The Queen City. The Queen of the West. The Blue Chip City. The City of Seven Hills. One of its most infamous nicknames? Porkopolis, which means flying pig.

Flying pig in Cincinnati

Flying pig in Cincinnati

11. Speaking of flying pigs, there are statues of this cute, mystical animal all over the city. But the nickname comes from the fact that Cincinnati used to have over 48 pork packing facilities. That’s a lot of jobs and a lot of hogs.

12. Four U.S. Presidents are from Cincinnati: William Howard Taft, Ulysses S. Grant, William Henry Harrison and Benjamin Harrison all have ties to the Cincinnati area.

13. The Cincinnati Reds were the first MLB baseball team in America. Founded in 1890, you can go see the Reds play 162 games each year, so there are plenty of opportunities.

Cincinnati Reds pitcher

Cincinnati Reds pitcher

14. The Cincinnati Reds aren’t just the first MLB team in America, they are also the first team to travel by plane for games. On June 8, 1934, the Reds took a plane to travel to another city for a game.

15. Cincinnati is the only city in the United States to build and own a railway, The Cincinnati Southern Railway. The CSR went to Chattanooga, TN, and connected the west and the south, making it a prominent aspect of the American railway system.

16. The Ingalls Building, built in 1903 and located downtown, was the world’s first concrete skyscraper. You can still visit it today!

17. A cardiologist named Samuel Kaplan created the first heart-lung machine in 1951 at the University of Cincinnati. This machine allowed for open-heart surgery to finally be a safe procedure and would go on to save untold numbers of lives.

18. The Vent Haven Museum is the only ventriloquist museum in America. So, if puppets and ventriloquism are your things, this is a must-visit. If you’re afraid of puppets, maybe pass on this unique Cincinnati gem!

The Roebling Suspension Bridge

The Roebling Suspension Bridge

19. The Roebling Suspension Bridge, originally known as the Cincinnati-Covington Bridge, was the longest suspension bridge in the world in 1866, at 1,057 feet. However, the record was soon overtaken by the Brooklyn Bridge. Funny enough, the same designer that built the Roebling Bridge, John A. Roebling, built the Brooklyn Bridge. So, at least the award stayed in the family!

20. Neil Armstrong lived and died in Cincinnati. The famous astronaut was born in Wapakoneta, OH, and moved to Cincinnati after he resigned from NASA in 1971.

21. After he retired from NASA, Armstrong went on to teach at the University of Cincinnati. Unsurprisingly, he taught in the Department of Aerospace Engineering. He was the most famous faculty member in the history of U.C.

22. Albert Carter, the inventor of the original magic 8-ball, was from Cincinnati and came up with the first design for the Magic-8 ball, originally dubbed the “Syco-Seer.”

23. The Cincinnati Observatory is the oldest professional observatory in America, established in 1842. It was a key part of the astronomy program at the University of Cincinnati. Perhaps this is part of why Neil Armstrong went on to teach at the U.C. — it sounds like the department was out of this world!

Pringles potato chips

Pringles potato chips

24. The inventor of Pringles, Fredric J. Baur, was buried in a grave in the Cincinnati area, inside of his original invention, the pringles can. It was his final request to have his ashes put in an Original-flavor pringles container inside of his grave.

25. The Centinel of the North-Western Territory printed its first edition on Nov. 9, 1793. It was the first newspaper published in the early days of the Cincinnati city settlement.

26. Cincinnati is home to the first paid, professional fire department, started in 1853. In fact, the co-inventor of the first steam fire engine was the first chief of the fire department!

27. Not only is Cincinnati the No. 1 place to live in Ohio, but it’s also the 8th cheapest place to live in the state! An amazing place to live and it’s affordable? Yes, please. If you’re looking for apartments for rent in Cincinnati, you’ll find a great deal!



28. Play-Doh, the moldable, safe-for-kids dough, was first manufactured in Cincinnati. But, it wasn’t created as a kids’ toy at first, it actually began as a wallpaper cleaner. In the 1950s, the company revamped it and it became the colorful, cute dough we know and love today.

29. The first bag of airmail (transported by hot air balloon) took off in 1835 from Cincinnati.

30. Martha, the world’s last Passenger Pigeon, died at the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914. There is a memorial exhibit for Martha still there today.

Did we forget any Cincinnati facts?

Cincinnati natives are proud of our city — unique qualities included. So, let us know in the comments if we missed any Cincinnati facts!

If you’re looking to move to Cincinnati, take a look at apartments for rent and homes for sale in the city.


Using In-School Deferment as a Student

Undergraduate and graduate students in school at least half-time can put off making federal student loan payments, and possibly private student loan payments, with in-school deferment. The catch? Interest usually accrues.

Loans are a fact of life for many students. In fact, a majority of them — about 70% — graduate with student loan debt.

While some students choose to start paying off their loans while they’re still in college, many take advantage of in-school deferment.

What Is In-School Deferment?

In-school deferment allows an undergraduate or graduate student, or parent borrower, to postpone making payments on:

•   Direct Loans, which include PLUS loans for graduate and professional students, or parents of dependent undergrads; subsidized and unsubsidized loans; and consolidation loans.

•   Perkins Loans

•   Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program loans.

Parents with PLUS loans may qualify for deferment if their student is enrolled at least half-time at an eligible college or career school.

What about private student loans? Many lenders allow students to defer payments while they’re in school and for six months after graduation. Sallie Mae lets you defer payments for 48 months as long as you are enrolled at least half-time.

But each private lender has its own rules.

Recommended: How Does Student Loan Deferment in Grad School Work?

How In-School Deferment Works

Federal student loan borrowers in school at least half-time are to be automatically placed into in-school deferment. You should receive a notice from your loan servicer.

If your loans don’t go into automatic in-school deferment or you don’t receive a notice, get in touch with the financial aid office at your school. You may need to fill out an In-School Deferment Request .

If you have private student loans, it’s a good idea to reach out to your loan servicer to request in-school deferment. If you’re seeking a new private student loan, you can review the lender’s deferment rules.

Most federal student loans also have a six-month grace period after a student graduates, drops below half-time enrollment, or leaves school before payments must begin. This applies to graduate students with PLUS loans as well.

Parent borrowers who took out a PLUS loan can request a six-month deferment after their student graduates, leaves school, or drops below half-time enrollment.

Requirements for In-School Deferment

Students with federal student loans must be enrolled at least half-time in an eligible school, defined by the Federal Student Aid office as one that has been approved by the Department of Education to participate in federal student aid programs, even if the school does not participate in those programs.

That includes most accredited American colleges and universities and some institutions outside the United States.

In-school deferment is primarily for students with existing loans or those who are returning to school after time away.

The definition of “half-time” can be tricky. Make sure you understand the definition your school uses, as not all schools define half-time status the same way. It’s usually based on a certain number of hours and/or credits.

Do I Need to Pay Interest During In-School Deferment?

For federal student loans and many private student loans, no.

If you have a federal Direct Unsubsidized Loan, interest will accrue during the deferment and be added to the principal loan balance.

If you have a Direct Subsidized Loan or a Perkins Loan, the government pays the interest while you’re in school and during grace periods. That’s also true of the subsidized portion of a Direct Consolidation Loan.

Interest will almost always accrue on deferred private student loans.

Although postponement of payments takes the pressure off, the interest that you’re responsible for that accrues on any loan will be capitalized, or added to your balance, after deferments and grace periods. You’ll then be charged interest on the increased principal balance. Capitalization of the unpaid interest may also increase your monthly payment, depending on your repayment plan.

If you’re able to pay the interest before it capitalizes, that can help keep your total loan cost down.

Alternatives to In-School Deferment

There are different types of deferment aside from in-school deferment.

•   Economic Hardship Deferment. You may receive an economic hardship deferment for up to three years if you receive a means-tested benefit, such as welfare, you are serving in the Peace Corps, or you work full time but your earnings are below 150% of the poverty guideline for your state and family size.

•   Graduate Fellowship Deferment. If you are in an approved graduate fellowship program, you could be eligible for this deferment.

•   Military Service and Post-Active Duty Student Deferment. You could qualify for this deferment if you are on active duty military service in connection with a military operation, war, or a national emergency, or you have completed active duty service and any applicable grace period. The deferment will end once you are enrolled in school at least half-time, or 13 months after completion of active duty service and any grace period, whichever comes first.

•   Rehabilitation Training Deferment. This deferment is for students who are in an approved program that offers drug or alcohol, vocational, or mental health rehabilitation.

•   Unemployment Deferment. You can receive this deferment for up to three years if you receive unemployment benefits or you’re unable to find full-time employment.

For most deferments, you’ll need to provide your student loan servicer with documentation to show that you’re eligible.

Then there’s federal student loan forbearance, which temporarily suspends or reduces your principal monthly payments, but interest always continues to accrue.

Some private student loan lenders offer forbearance as well.

If your federal student loan type does not charge interest during deferment, that’s probably the way to go. If you’ve reached the maximum time for a deferment or your situation doesn’t fit the eligibility criteria, applying for forbearance is an option.

If your ability to afford your federal student loan payments is unlikely to change any time soon, you may want to consider an income-based repayment plan or student loan refinancing.

The goal of refinancing with a private lender is to change your rate or term. If you qualify, all loans can be refinanced into one new private loan. Playing with the numbers can be helpful.

Just know that if you refinance federal student loans, they will no longer be eligible for federal deferment or forbearance, loan forgiveness programs, or income-driven repayment.

Recommended: Student Loan Refinancing Calculator

The Takeaway

What is in-school deferment? It allows undergraduates and graduate students to buy time before student loan payments begin, but interest usually accrues and is added to the balance.

If trying to lower your student loan rates is something that’s of interest, look into refinancing with SoFi.

Students are eligible to refinance a parent’s PLUS loan along with their own student loans.

There are absolutely no fees.

It’s easy to check your rate.

We’ve Got You Covered

SoFi Student Loan Refinance
Notice: SoFi refinance loans are private loans and do not have the same repayment options that the federal loan program offers such as Income-Driven Repayment plans, including Income-Contingent Repayment or PAYE. SoFi always recommends that you consult a qualified financial advisor to discuss what is best for your unique situation.

External Websites: The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.
Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.


The Best Places to Live in South Carolina in 2022

With its variety of beach towns and laid-back atmosphere throughout the state, there are a lot of cities considered the best places to live in South Carolina.

There are big plantation homes and tons of American history throughout the state, not to mention the unique culture of the Lowcountry. All combined, South Carolina is really like no other place in the U.S.

From outdoor fun to delicious, local eats and all the activities in between, living in South Carolina is an experience worth having. Here are 13 of the best places to live in South Carolina.

Charleston, SC

Charleston, SC

  • Population: 137,566
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,479
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,224
  • Median home price: $280,000
  • Median household income: $68, 438
  • Walk score: 63/100

With so much history packed into one town, Charleston is a great place to call home. As the starting point for the Civil War, you can explore Fort Sumter and take in a major turning point in our country’s own story.

When you’re ready to dip into the modern amenities of the city, there’s no shortage of enticing eats, preserved architecture and culture to enjoy. It’s the perfect mix of a city and a coastal town with so much to do right outside your door and so many beaches just minutes away.

Clemson, SC

Clemson, SC

  • Population: 17,501
  • 1-BR median rent: n/a
  • 2-BR median rent: $590
  • Median home price: $257,500
  • Median household income: $43,568
  • Walk score: 34/100

Of course, the biggest draw to this particular city is Clemson University. There’s plenty of student housing around this prestigious school. And, although Clemson gets billed as a college town, the city and school have a positive, intertwined community.

Leaving the draw of campus and all that football, introduces you to all the rest Clemson has to offer, including the Bob Campbell Geology Museum, the Brooks Center for Performing Arts and even the South Carolina Botanical Gardens.

Columbia, SC

Columbia, SC

  • Population: 131,674
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,067
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,103
  • Median home price: $200,000
  • Median household income: $47,286
  • Walk score: 35/100

Another college town, Columbia is home to the University of South Carolina. The campus stretches across the city, and tailgate culture is huge, everywhere. You’re most likely a football fan, to some degree, if you call this city home.

In addition to being Gamecock central, Columbia is also the state capital, bringing in a diverse population — that’s not all college students — to make the city run. It’s one of the best places to live in South Carolina because of its varied population and professional opportunities. There’s also plenty of fun things to do.

Fort Mill, SC

Fort Mill, SC

  • Population: 22,284
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,425
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,692
  • Median home price: $410,000
  • Median household income: $91,061
  • Walk score: 19/100

A charming historic district and proximity to Charlotte, NC make Fort Mill an appealing way to stay close to the city without actually living in it. Fort Mill offers miles of hiking and biking trails along its own greenway, plenty of golf and all the dining and shopping you could want.

One of the fastest-growing communities in the area, Fort Mill is drawing in families and young professionals alike — anyone who wants the combination of activity and natural beauty wrapped up in a carefully laid out town.

Greenville, SC

Greenville, SC

  • Population: 70,635
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,284
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,445
  • Median home price: $280,000
  • Median household income: $56,609
  • Walk score: 39/100

Known as an artsy city, neighborhoods in Greenville provide an eclectic mix of locations. Combining small-town charm and more urban amenities, you’ll find plenty of galleries, public festivals and events to satisfy your creative side.

Greenville is also perfectly placed for nature lovers to get a dose of outdoor beauty. Situated right in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, scenic hikes are less than an hour away. For a closer touch of nature, Falls Park lures residents in with its waterfalls and suspension bridge.

Hilton Head, SC

Hilton Head, SC

  • Population: 39,861
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,162
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,600
  • Median home price: $395,000
  • Median household income: $84,575
  • Walk score: 16/100

While you may consider Hilton Head more of a vacation spot than a living destination, the island offers something for everyone. Beautiful beaches, world-class golf, shopping, restaurants and even nightlife are all here. But, it’s not all resorts in this slice of the Lowcountry. There are plenty of communities that provide that homey feel.

Another draw of Hilton Head is its location. The island is one of the best places to live in South Carolina because of its proximity to both Savannah, GA, and Charleston. You can set yourself up for a more picturesque home life while taking advantage of big-city opportunities.

Lexington, SC

Lexington, SC

  • Population: 22,157
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,255
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,420
  • Median home price: $208,000
  • Median household income: $72,996
  • Walk score: 16/100

The historic and modern mix perfectly together in Lexington. Its historical claim to fame is the home to one of the first battles in the Revolutionary War. Another part of the city’s history revolves around commerce, and Lexington’s Old Mill stands as a symbol of the area’s commitment to small businesses.

Shopping around here means supporting locals and long-standing, family-owned shops. Its history and commerce are all in one, packaged in a quaint, suburban environment that continues to draw in young professionals and families.

Mauldin, SC

Mauldin, SC

  • Population: 25,409
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,378
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,333
  • Median home price: $249,200
  • Median household income: $67,860
  • Walk score: 28/100

A suburb of Greenville, Mauldin provides that safe, suburban feel without taking you too far away from a bustling city center. With access to everything the big city has to offer, staying close to home also provides ample opportunities for natural beauty and activity.

The 400-acre Lake Conestee Nature Park is not only a natural habitat for lots of local wildlife, but it’s also a perfect place for outdoor enthusiasts. And, it’s only five minutes from the center of town. You also can’t skip over the food in Mauldin when talking about the amenities of the town. You’ll find delicious Lowcountry cooking and plenty of great local restaurants.

Mount Pleasant, SC

Mount Pleasant, SC

  • Population: 91,684
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,525
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,783
  • Median home price: $555,500
  • Median household income: $103,232
  • Walk score: 29/100

As a South Carolina town with literally everything you could ever want, Mount Pleasant is a popular choice to call home. It’s quiet and picturesque, with strong community vibes and a variety of residents. It’s a town that caters to its population with great restaurants, shops and thriving nightlife.

Another laid-back coastal town that has it all, you’re also close to so much that makes South Carolina great. Sullivan’s Island is only a short car ride away, and Isle of Palms isn’t too far, either. On top of that, you’re less than three miles from Charleston. It’s the perfect, middle spot to enjoy everything the entire area offers.

Myrtle Beach, SC

Myrtle Beach, SC

  • Population: 34,695
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,314
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,400
  • Median home price: $250,000
  • Median household income: $43,200
  • Walk score: 23/100

Known primarily as a vacation destination that can get a little rowdy, Myrtle Beach has a lot to offer once you step away from the tourist traps and move past the amusement parks and high-rise hotels.

Taking up 60 miles of coastline, Myrtle Beach is a resort town, with all the typical amenities, and that presents a lot of opportunity both for job-seekers and entrepreneurs. There’s also the climate to consider when thinking of Myrtle as one of the best places to live in South Carolina — it’s fantastic. Mild weather and the lulling sounds of the ocean attract families, young professionals and empty-nesters to call this place home.

Rock Hill, SC

Rock Hill, SC

  • Population: 75,048
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,132
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,320
  • Median home price: $277,000
  • Median household income: $50,444
  • Walk score: 32/100

A thriving art scene gives the downtown area of Rock Hill its own signature. Named the state’s first cultural district, this area is full of galleries, museums, theaters and art studios. Not only that, but you’ll find the streets peppered with murals and sculptures from local artists.

Not an arts town alone, Rock Hill also has 31 parks, including Cherry Park and its 68 acres of hiking trails and landscaped walkways. Boyd Hill is another option with a disc golf course, picnic areas and even an outdoor swimming pool.

Spartanburg, SC

Spartanburg, SC

  • Population: 37,399
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,140
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,217
  • Median home price: $205,000
  • Median household income: $40,053
  • Walk score: 29/100

If South Carolina is calling to you for its mountain views, you’ll want to check out Spartanburg. With its small-town feel and neighborly vibe, living here still reminds you that you’re in the south but without the beach-front scenery the majority of the state provides.

A revitalized downtown is representative of the quick pace at which the city has grown over the last few years, and you’ll find diversity in job opportunities and living options as a result.

Tega Cay, SC

Tega Cay, SC

  • Population: 11,335
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,330
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,600
  • Median home price: $460,000
  • Median household income: $130,918
  • Walk score: 16/100

Another suburb of Charlotte, Tega Cay is a close-knit, lakeside community that fits most people’s ideal of small-town living. A family-friendly place, you’ll find plenty of restaurants and shops, as well as water sports on the lake.

Residents of Tega Cay also value the safety of the city. It’s the kind of place where kids are always out riding bikes and the community pool fills up with eager swimmers each summer. It’s almost like the suburban town you’d find in a movie.

Find an apartment for rent in South Carolina

Whether you want city living, ocean waves or even mountain tops, apartments for rent in South Carolina can provide the perfect view. With locations that accommodate any pace of life, alongside some delicious, fresh seafood, you’ll quickly see why there are so many places in the state people call the best.

The rent information included in this summary is based on a median calculation of multifamily rental property inventory on Apartment Guide and as of October 2021.
Median home prices are from Redfin as of October 2021.
Population and median household income are from the U.S. Census Bureau.
The information in this article is for illustrative purposes only. This data herein does not constitute a pricing guarantee or financial advice related to the rental market.




Stock Market Corrections – What Are They and How to Handle Them

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People look to the stock market as a way to build and protect wealth, but experienced investors know it doesn’t always work out that way. The market moves through a series of peaks and valleys, often leading to overvaluations or undervaluations. 

When a long-term bull market takes place, investors know that a dreaded downturn on Wall Street is likely ahead. 

These drawdowns, or market corrections, are periods when stock valuations fall. They tend to cause some investors to panic, but there’s no need to be alarmed. These occasional declines are perfectly normal, and most consider them necessary in a healthy U.S. stock market. 

Here’s everything you need to know about market corrections. 

What Is a Stock Market Correction?

A correction is a downward market trend characterized by the value of a financial asset falling at least 10% from its most recent peak. 

For example, imagine stock ABC was trading at a peak of $100 per share 45 days ago. Today, the stock is trading at $89 per share, down $11 or 11% from recent highs. Since the decline is greater than 10%, the move would be considered a correction. 

These market declines are often riddled with volatility as investors race to sell, hoping to protect themselves from further financial pain. 

However, as you’ll learn below, a sudden drop in stock prices from recent highs isn’t always a reason to sell. In fact, corrections are often the best time to buy more shares of your favorite stocks, practicing dollar-cost averaging and increasing your overall return potential. 

Here are a few important facts about corrections:

There Are Different Levels of Stock Market Corrections

First and foremost, market corrections take place on varying levels:

Individual Stocks

Like in the example above, corrections often happen on individual stocks. They can be spurred by bad news like missed earnings or revenue expectations, or they can come completely out of the blue as a group of investors decides it’s time to take a profit. These corrections only tend to affect a single stock. 


Some corrections wreak havoc on entire sectors, sending nearly every stock in an industry down a slide. For example, sudden shocks to the price of oil might put the oil and gas sector into a correction, or new legislation targeting drug prices might send the pharmaceutical sector into a slump. 


Some events can lead entire financial markets in a specific region on a spiral downward. For example, when tariffs were placed on Chinese goods entering the United States, Chinese stocks took a dive, resulting in a regional correction.


Finally, corrections can happen across the global market. During a stock market correction, the entire market drops. These events are characterized by simultaneous declines of 10% or more throughout major market indexes around the globe. 

Corrections Are Generally Short-Lived

While some market corrections lead to long-lasting bear markets, the vast majority of corrections are actually short-term sell-offs. In fact, only 10 out of the past 37 corrections from 1980 to 2018 resulted in bear markets, with the rest turning out to be short-term blips. 

In general, corrections last between three and four months. Once the event is over, the market generally rebounds quickly, resulting in tremendous earnings potential. So, it’s important not to panic when these events take place; keeping a level head and paying attention to market conditions will likely open the door to several profitable opportunities.  

A Correction Isn’t the Same as a Bear Market

Both corrections and bear markets are characterized by stock market crashes. However, there are a few important differences between the two:

  • Percentage Declines. Bear markets are generally characterized by declines of 20% or more from recent peak values rather than 10% declines. 
  • Term. When the bears take hold of a sector, region, or the whole market, they tend to maintain control for some time. According to Hartford Funds, the average bear market lasts 9.6 months, which is substantially longer than the three to four months the average correction takes to subside. 
  • Cause. Corrections can take place out of the blue when the investing masses decide it’s time to take profit. However, bear markets are generally more meaningful. These long-standing declines are usually signs of concerning economic conditions, geopolitical conditions, or a mix of the two. 

Corrections Happen Often

As mentioned above, 37 corrections took place from 1980 to 2018, working out to slightly less than one per year on average. That stands as evidence that you shouldn’t panic when it happens. 

While the talking heads on financial media will make a big deal out of any correction that takes place, level heads prevail in the stock market. 

Examples of Corrections

One of the best ways to get an understanding of the nature of stock market corrections is to look at a few examples from history. 

One of the most recent market-wide corrections was caused by the coronavirus pandemic in 2020. As the virus spread, hair salons, movie theaters, amusement parks, and shopping malls were considered nonessential and forced to shut down for months. This led to widespread job loss, corporate bankruptcies, and reduced consumer spending. 

As a result, the market started to tank. 

Soon, the correction caused by the pandemic became an all-out bear market, leading the S&P 500 index, Dow Jones Industrial Average, and the Nasdaq all down by more than 30%. It took 10 months for all three indexes to make a full recovery. 

Another example occurred in February 2018, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the S&P 500 index fell by more than 10% each. While the correction was prompted by inflation-related concerns, the profit-taking proved to be overblown in the long run. By mid-March 2018, prices began to rise, eventually making a full recovery.

What Corrections Tell You

Market corrections aren’t always as informative as you might think. They can be a sign of healthy market and economic conditions as valuations balance themselves out, acting as a perfectly normal part of the financial system. 

For example, if a correction happens out of the blue at a time when economic growth is at its peak, corporations are experiencing growth in profitability, and geopolitical conditions are stable, the move is likely nothing more than investors taking profits, and it will soon be over.

On the other hand, when coupled with concerning fundamental data, corrections can be signs of tough times to come.

For example, if recent economic reports show slowing new home sales, increasing unemployment insurance claims, and declining consumer spending, and stocks slide by 10% or more, the move could be a sign that an economic recession and all-out bear market is on the horizon. 

What to Do if a Stock Market Correction Takes Place

Although it may come as a surprise, many long-term investors do nothing at all when market downturns set in. These investors know that the vast majority of corrections won’t last long, and they avoid knee-jerk reactions when it happens. Riding out corrections is the favored approach of buy-and-hold investors, especially those with a long-term outlook. 

On the other hand, some seasoned active investors take steps in order to make the declines work to their advantage. Here’s how:

1. Rebalance

If you’ve been following a solid investment strategy, your asset allocation was thoughtfully chosen to provide diversification. 

Unfortunately, over time, your allocation will fall out of balance as some assets move at faster rates and in different directions than others. When imbalance happens, it can leave you either overexposed to risk or underexposed to opportunity. 

With the market edging down, it’s crucial to make sure your allocation isn’t out of balance and the protections you’ve put in place are able to work to your advantage. Now is the time to rebalance your investment portfolio. 

2. Assess the Correction

Next, you’ll want to determine what type of correction you’re seeing and whether the move is likely to continue into a bear market. Ask yourself the following questions:

  • How Widespread Is the Correction? Are you noticing the move on a single stock or single index? Take time to look around and see if it’s more widespread. Look into what the Dow Jones Industrial Average, Nasdaq composite index, and S&P 500 index are doing. If they’re all falling at a similar rate, the correction is a widespread one. 
  • Is There a Clear Cause? Corrections can come out of nowhere with no rhyme or reason, or they may be the result of deep underlying issues. The only way to find out is to do a bit of research. 
  • How Deep Is the Cause? Did the U.S. Federal Reserve raise interest rates by a quarter of a percent? If so, although the move may slow lending slightly, it’s a sign that the U.S. economy is doing well, and the market will likely recover quickly. On the other hand, if war was just declared or jobs reports have shown months-long declines in hiring, there may be cause for long-term concern.

3. Act On What You’ve Learned

There are several different actions you could take based on your answers to the questions above, but they’ll all boil down to one of the following:

If it’s a Single Stock or Sector Correction With No Apparent Cause

If the move is in a single stock or sector, and there’s no clear rhyme or reason to it, you’re in luck — you’ve found a buying opportunity. 

Traders take profits all the time, and this profit-taking can lead to painful, short-term declines. Although there’s no telling where the bottom will be, now is the time to strategically buy more shares in a company you like. Here are a few tips for doing so:

  • Set the Floor. If the sell-off has no rhyme or reason, it’s likely a technical move in which traders are taking profits. This means that there will likely be a clear point of support. Use technical analysis to find the support level. 
  • Buy Even Blocks of Shares. As the stock continues to fall to support, make consistent, equal purchases of blocks of shares. This process of dollar-cost averaging ensures you don’t lose too much with a large purchase before further declines or miss out on opportunities when the rebound happens. As the stock falls, your average cost per share will fall as well. When the rebound happens, that reduced average cost means larger gains. 
  • Set Stop-Loss Orders. Set stop-loss or stop-limit orders just below the support level. If the stock falls below this point, there may be a significant underlying reason for the declines. It’s time to exit the position and reassess the situation. 

If it’s a Single Stock With a Short-Term Cause

In some cases, there will be good reasons for a single stock taking a dive, but those reasons will only lead to short-term movement. 

For example, a company may miss earnings or revenue expectations in a single quarter, leading to fear among investors. In this case, the company’s stock will likely fall, but if the company is solid, it will make up the losses and then some in the long run. 

If this is the case, consider using the dollar-cost averaging method described above to gain further exposure to the rebound. 

If it’s a Single Stock With a Serious Problem

If the correction takes place in a single stock and the reason is both clear and long term, it’s time to sell and accept your losses. 

For example, imagine a biotech company you’ve invested in has been working to find the cure for a devastating ailment. Things looked great. However, the FDA rejected the drug, and the company decided it’s going to cut its losses and go back to the drawing board. At this point, the stock’s losses are likely to continue for some time. 

In this case, it’s best to cut your losses and look for a more promising opportunity elsewhere. 

If the Entire Market Is Falling

If you’re looking at a market-wide correction, there are a few things to consider. In the majority of cases, if the entire market is falling, there’s a reason, regardless of how clear or unclear that reason may be. 

One of the most common reasons for market-wide corrections is high valuations. Movement in the market takes place through a series of ebbs and flows. However, when the market flows up too fast without enough ebbs in between, overvaluations happen, and investors begin to take profits. 

These are generally short-term moves and nothing to be concerned about. As a result, outside of buying in on undervalued opportunities as prices fall, there’s not much action that needs to be taken. 

On the other hand, corrections can be signs of deep economic or geopolitical concerns. For example, if job growth in the U.S. seems to be plateauing, home sales are slowing, and unemployment lines are growing during a market correction, all these signs together point to a potential economic recession, which could cause the correction to turn into a long-term bear market. 

Even in this case, it’s important not to panic. After all, panicking leads to poor decision making.

Instead, consider making adjustments to your asset allocation to reduce your overall risk. To do so, move a portion of your money out of stocks and into fixed-income securities and other safe-haven assets. 

After doing so, keep a close eye on economic data. When the economy begins to improve, it’s time to go shopping for discounts in the stock market. At this point, long-term declines will have led the valuations of many quality companies into the dumps, which is great news for buyers. Buying in at these lows will often lead to jaw-dropping profits.

4. Consider Speaking to a Financial Advisor

If the market’s experiencing declines, and you’re not sure what to do, one of the best courses of action is to speak to a professional. 

Sure, it may cost a few hundred dollars to get a financial advisor’s ear for an hour, but those few hundred dollars could save you thousands — or, even better, help you turn a profit in a down market. 

When you have a leak, you call a roofer, even though you know that will cost you more money than doing the research and fixing the roof yourself. There’s no reason to be ashamed to call a financial pro when you have questions about your money and activities in the market. 

Pros and Cons of Market Corrections

Although corrections may be concerning at first glance, they’re not all doom and gloom. In fact, there are several benefits to corrections happening as well. Here are the pros and cons of these moves:

Market Correction Pros

1. Discounted Buying Opportunities

The basic concept of making money in the stock market is the act of buying low and selling high. If you’re looking for a strong entry point, there are few better than in the midst of a correction. During these times, stocks are undervalued, offering discounted opportunities to get in on future gains. 

2. Market Health

Financial markets are complex systems with multiple moving parts, and for those systems to work properly, there have to be checks and balances. Corrections help to keep the market balanced, which is necessary for a healthy system overall. An occasional round of profit-taking helps to keep euphoria in check. 

3. Set the Stage for Bull Markets

A far smaller portion of corrections become bear markets than are followed by bull markets. Statistically, these moves are more often than not signs of a bull market on the horizon. 

Market Correction Cons

Unfortunately, market corrections come with some drawbacks, the most important being:

1. Retail Investor Panic

The biggest victims of corrections are often inexperienced retail investors who panic and sell when stocks fall. While the retail crowd sells for a loss, savvy investors — often institutional investors or experienced traders — are picking up their shares and enjoying the gains the average investor would have had if they’d simply kept a level head. 

2. Can Be Signs of Bear Markets

Although a market correction is more likely to be followed by a bull market than a bear market, there are times when bear markets do set in. If economic conditions are troubling, a correction can be a signal of something even worse ahead. It’s important to understand the reason for the correction and determine whether a long-term bear market is likely before deciding how to react. 

3. Short-Term Financial Pain

Finally, stock market corrections aren’t significant points of pain for everyone. Although nobody likes to see short-term losses, for some investors, the moves can come with significant financial concern. 

This is particularly the case for investors with a short time horizon, like retirees. Investors who are dependent on the income generated through their portfolios often have to withdraw money to survive during market corrections. Unfortunately, these investors don’t always have the option of waiting for the correction to end and may be forced to realize significant losses. 

Final Word

All told, corrections aren’t quite as scary as they’re cracked up to be. Sure, losses can and often do happen during these downward moves. However, they’re important cycles that help to keep the overall financial machine healthy. 

Not to mention, savvy investors can make corrections work to their advantage by strategically buying undervalued stocks for a discount to take advantage of the gains that are likely to follow. 

No matter what your plan is during a market correction, it’s important not to panic. Level heads make educated decisions, and educated decisions usually equate to profits in the stock market.

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