Average Student Loan Debt by State in 2021

Student loan debt nationwide increased by 8.28% in 2020, the largest increase since 2013, according to the latest report from EducationData.org. That spike was most likely fueled by rising unemployment and 3.2 million new federal student loan borrowers.

Student loan debt is now the second highest consumer debt category in the country behind only housing debt . Nationwide, nearly 40% of college attendees report some type of educational debt, and 65% graduate with student debt, the report showed.

A recent report from EducationData.org details the average student loan debt per borrower (based on all student loan debt, not just that owed by undergraduate borrowers) in each state. Overall, residents of Washington, D.C., have the nation’s highest federal student loan debt at more than $55,000 per borrower when looking at the total student loan debt owed by individuals in the state. Of every state, North Dakota has the lowest average federal student loan debt, with residents there owing an average of just $29,446.

Student Loan Debt in Each State

Read on for an overview of what student loan debt looks like across the country according to EducationData.org . This data is reflective of all borrowers, not just undergraduate students.

Alabama

Average borrower debt: $37,348
Total student loan debt: $23.1 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Alabama

Alaska

Average borrower debt: $34,431
Total student loan debt: $2.3 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Alaska

Arizona

Average borrower debt: $35,454
Total student loan debt: $30.7 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Arizona

Arkansas

Average borrower debt: $33,525
Total student loan debt: $12.8 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Arkansas

California

Average borrower debt: $36,937
Total student loan debt: $142.7 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in California

Colorado

Average borrower debt: $37,120
Total student loan debt: $28.2 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Colorado

Connecticut

Average borrower debt: $35,448
Total student loan debt: $17.1 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Connecticut

Delaware

Average borrower debt: $37,338
Total student loan debt: $4.6 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Delaware

District of Columbia

Average borrower debt: $55,077
Total student loan debt: $6.4 Billion

Florida

Average borrower debt: $38,481
Total student loan debt: $98.2 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Florida

Georgia

Average borrower debt: $41,843
Total student loan debt: $67.2 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Georgia

Hawaii

Average borrower debt: $36,575
Total student loan debt: $4.4 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Hawaii

Idaho

Average borrower debt: $33,100
Total student loan debt: $7.1 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Idaho

Illinois

Average borrower debt: $38,071
Total student loan debt: $61.1 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Illinois

Indiana

Average borrower debt: $33,106
Total student loan debt: $29.6 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Indiana

Iowa

Average borrower debt: $30,848
Total student loan debt: $13.2 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Iowa

Kansas

Average borrower debt: $33,130
Total student loan debt: $12.5 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Kansas

Kentucky

Average borrower debt: $33,023
Total student loan debt: $19.5 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Kentucky

Louisiana

Average borrower debt: $34,683
Total student loan debt: $22.1 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Louisiana

Maine

Average borrower debt: $33,352
Total student loan debt: $6.1 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Maine

Maryland

Average borrower debt: $43,219
Total student loan debt: $35.5 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Maryland

Massachusetts

Average borrower debt: $34,549
Total student loan debt: $30.4 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Massachusetts

Michigan

Average borrower debt: $36,295
Total student loan debt: $50.7 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Michigan

Minnesota

Average borrower debt: $33,822
Total student loan debt: $26.3 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Minnesota

Mississippi

Average borrower debt: $37,080
Total student loan debt: $16.0 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Mississippi

Missouri

Average borrower debt: $35,706
Total student loan debt: $29.3 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Missouri

Montana

Average borrower debt: $33,953
Total student loan debt: $4.2 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Montana

Nebraska

Average borrower debt: $32,138
Total student loan debt: $7.8 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Nebraska

Nevada

Average borrower debt: $33,863
Total student loan debt: $26.3 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Nevada

New Hampshire

Average borrower debt: $34,353
Total student loan debt: $6.4 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in New Hampshire

New Jersey

Average borrower debt: $35,730
Total student loan debt: $41.7 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in New Jersey

New Mexico

Average borrower debt: $34,237
Total student loan debt: $7.7 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in New Mexico

New York

Average borrower debt: $38,107
Total student loan debt: $91.9 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in New York

North Carolina

Average borrower debt: $37,861
Total student loan debt: $48.0 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in North Carolina

North Dakota

Average borrower debt: $29,446
Total student loan debt: $2.5 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in North Dakota

Ohio

Average borrower debt: $34,923
Total student loan debt: $61.8 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Ohio

Oklahoma

Average borrower debt: $31,832
Total student loan debt: $15.2 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Oklahoma

Oregon

Average borrower debt: $37,251
Total student loan debt: $20.0 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Oregon

Pennsylvania

Average borrower debt: $35,804
Total student loan debt: $63.9 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

Average borrower debt: $32,212
Total student loan debt: $4.5 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Rhode Island

South Carolina

Average borrower debt: $38,662
Total student loan debt: $27.5 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in South Carolina

South Dakota

Average borrower debt: $31,858
Total student loan debt: $3.6 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in South Dakota

Tennessee

Average borrower debt: $36,549
Total student loan debt: $30.8 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Tennessee

Texas

Average borrower debt: $33,123
Total student loan debt: $116.8 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Texas

Utah

Average borrower debt: $32,781
Total student loan debt: $9.9 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Utah

Vermont

Average borrower debt: $38,411
Total student loan debt: $2.9 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Vermont

Virginia

Average borrower debt: $39,472
Total student loan debt: $41.9 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Virginia

Washington

Average borrower debt: $35,521
Total student loan debt: $27.6 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Washington

West Virginia

Average borrower debt: $32,258
Total student loan debt: $7.2 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in West Virginia

Wisconsin

Average borrower debt: $32,272
Total student loan debt: $23.1 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Wisconsin

Wyoming

Average borrower debt: $30,246
Total student loan debt: $1.6 Billion
Everything you need to know about student loans & scholarships in Wyoming

The Takeaway

The average amount of debt held by borrowers varies from state to state. The five states with the highest average amount of student loan debt per borrower are; Washington D.C., Maryland, Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina. The five states with the lowest average of student loans per borrower are; South Dakota, Oklahoma, Iowa, Wyoming, and North Dakota. North Dakota is the only state where the average borrower owes less than $30,000.

For millions, student loans are a necessary part of paying for college. When federal aid and savings aren’t enough to pay for school, some borrowers turn to private student loans. While private lenders are not required to offer the same benefits or protections as federal student loans, they can be helpful for borrowers who have exhausted all other options and are looking to fill in gaps in funding. Student loans with SoFi have no hidden fees and borrowers are able to choose from four repayment plans.

Find out more about private student loans available from SoFi.

Photo credit: iStock/FangXiaNuo


SoFi Loan Products
SoFi loans are originated by SoFi Lending Corp. or an affiliate (dba SoFi), a lender licensed by the Department of Financial Protection and Innovation under the California Financing Law, license # 6054612; NMLS # 1121636 . For additional product-specific legal and licensing information, see SoFi.com/legal.

SoFi Private Student Loans
Please borrow responsibly. SoFi Private Student Loans are not a substitute for federal loans, grants, and work-study programs. You should exhaust all your federal student aid options before you consider any private loans, including ours. Read our FAQs.
SoFi Private Student Loans are subject to program terms and restrictions, and applicants must meet SoFi’s eligibility and underwriting requirements. See SoFi.com/eligibility for more information. To view payment examples, click here. SoFi reserves the right to modify eligibility criteria at any time. This information is subject to change.

External Websites: The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.
Third Party Brand Mentions: No brands or products mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.
Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.
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Source: sofi.com

5 Home Services You Should Not Pay For

Man holding up his hand to stop a home purchase
Asier Romero / Shutterstock.com

Homeownership certainly comes with a lot of unavoidable if sometimes unexpected expenses, from property taxes to insurance and repairs.

But there are many home-related costs we don’t necessarily need to pay for — and other things we’re not sure are worth it.

Following are some costs you might be on the fence about, and why we think you should avoid them.

1. Air duct cleaning

duct cleaning
Rob Crandall / Shutterstock.com

Some companies advertise duct cleaning services to supposedly improve your home’s air quality.

Does it work? The Environmental Protection Agency is unconvinced.

It says, “Duct cleaning has never been shown to actually prevent health problems,” and suggests only having ducts cleaned in a few specific situations, such as if mold is visible inside your heating and cooling system or if there are vermin.

2. Custom framing

Selection of custom picture frames
Eric Glenn / Shutterstock.com

Simply hanging artwork in your home shouldn’t be an expensive proposition, but it can be if you rely on custom framing jobs. In some cases, a frame can cost more than what it protects.

The reason custom framing gets so expensive, Vox explains, is the number of options available — a dizzying array of hundreds of frames and mats of all sizes, plus options for moldings and glazings.

For standard-sized images, a ready-made frame may suffice at a fraction of the cost. You can buy them new at a home goods store, or if you want a more “distressed” look and even greater savings, bring a tape measure to your local thrift store and size up some gently-used frames. So-called “floater frames” can provide style and flexibility for displaying art of unusual dimensions.

And then there are a growing number of specialty companies online, happy to provide custom-size frames at a lower cost than local frame shops. The New York Times’ Wirecutter recommends Framebridge, which has a flat fee, high-quality builds and the simplest ordering process among the tested companies.

3. Extended product warranties

Excited salesman
Billion Photos / Shutterstock.com

It’s natural to want to get your money’s worth out of every purchase, and therefore to consider extending a warranty. But many experts suggest they’re usually just not worth it, including Money Talks News founder Stacy Johnson.

This is doubly true if you use a credit card that automatically extends warranties or have another way to get a warranty. For instance, if you’re a Costco member, you can get a free two-year warranty on items such as TVs, computers and major appliances that you purchase there.

4. Self-storage rentals

storage units
sunlover / Shutterstock.com

Buying more stuff than you need is expensive enough. But what’s even worse is when you run out of space for all that stuff in your home and start paying somebody else to hold on to it for you.

Consider self-storage a temporary solution, for situations like moving a household. Otherwise, you’re paying potentially thousands to hide many things you’re probably going to forget about because they’re not important enough to keep handy or remember in your day-to-day life. All that money wasted because you can’t bear the thought of decluttering.

If you really must maintain a unit, check out “10 Ways to Cut the Cost of Self-Storage.”

5. Junk hauling

Upset woman in a cluttered garage
northallertonman / Shutterstock.com

So you’ve decided to declutter: Great! But don’t pay someone to get rid of your stuff.

Instead, turn to free ways to rid yourself of things you no longer need.

Search for local charities that are willing to pick up your donations. Post listings on websites such as Facebook, Freecycle or the Buy Nothing Project.

Disclosure: The information you read here is always objective. However, we sometimes receive compensation when you click links within our stories.

Source: moneytalksnews.com

Using Income Share Agreements to Pay for School

Many students end up taking out loans to finance the cost of college. As of the first quarter of 2021, Americans collectively held $1.57 trillion in student debt, up $29 billion from the previous quarter. And a significant share of borrowers were struggling with their debt burdens: Just under 6% of total student debt was 90 days or more past due or in default.

Students looking for alternatives to student loans can apply for grants and scholarships, take on work-study jobs or other part-time work, or find ways to save on expenses.

Recently, another alternative has appeared on the table for students at certain institutions: income share agreements. An income share agreement is a type of college financing in which repayment is a fixed percentage of the borrower’s future income over a specified period of time.

As this financing option grows in popularity, here are some key things to know about how these agreements operate and to help you decide whether they’re the right choice for you.

How Income Share Agreements Work

Unlike student loans, an income share agreement, also known as an income sharing agreement or ISA, doesn’t involve a contract with the government or a private lender. Rather, it’s a contract between the student and their college or university.

In exchange for receiving educational funds from the school, the student promises to pay a share of his or her future earnings to the institution for a fixed amount of time after graduation.

ISAs don’t typically charge interest, and the amount students pay usually fluctuates according to their income. Students don’t necessarily have to pay back the entire amount they borrow, as long as they make the agreed-upon payments over a set period. Though, they also may end up paying more than the amount they received.

Income share agreements only appeared on the scene in the last few years, but they are quickly expanding. Since 2016, ISA programs have launched at places like Purdue University in Indiana, Clarkson University in New York, and Lackawanna College in Pennsylvania. Each school decides on its own terms and eligibility guidelines for the programs. The school itself or outside investors may provide funds for ISAs.

Purdue University was one of the first schools to create a modern ISA program. Sophomores, juniors, and seniors who meet certain criteria, including full-time enrollment and satisfactory academic progress, are eligible to apply.

Students may have a six-month grace period after graduation to start making payments, similar to the six-month grace period for student loans, and the repayment term at Purdue is typically 10 years. For some schools, however, the repayment term ranges from two to 10 years.

The exact amount students can expect to pay depends on the amount they took out and their income. The university estimates that a junior who graduates in 2023 with a marketing major will have a starting salary of $51,000 and will see their income grow an average of 4.7% a year.

If that student borrowed $10,000 in ISA funds, he or she would be required to pay 3.39% of his or her income for a little over eight years. The total amount that student would pay back is $17,971. The repayment cap for the 2021-2022 school year is $23,100.

Again, every ISA is different and may have different requirements, so be sure to check with your college or university for all the details.

The Advantages of Income Share Agreements

ISAs aren’t for everyone, but they can be beneficial for some students. For example, students who don’t qualify for other forms of financial aid, such as undocumented immigrants, may have few other options for funding school.

For students who have already maxed out their federal loans, ISAs can be a more affordable option than Parent PLUS loans or private student loans, both of which sometimes come with relatively high interest rates and fees.

Compared to student loans, many ISAs also protect students by preventing monthly payments from becoming unaffordable. Since the amount paid is always tied to income, students should never end up owing more than a set percentage for a fixed period of time. However, a student’s field of study may impact this. Students who are high earners after college may end up paying more to repay an ISA than they would have under other financing options.

If a student has trouble finding a well-paying job, or finding one at all, payments typically shrink accordingly. For example, Purdue sets a minimum income amount below which students don’t pay anything.

In Purdue’s case, the student won’t owe anything else once the repayment period is over, compared to student loans that can multiply exponentially over time due to accrued interest.

Purdue and several other universities also set the amount and length of repayment based on a student’s major, meaning monthly payments can be more tailored to graduates’ fields and salaries than student loans are. For fortunate students who see their income rise beyond expectations, many schools ensure the student won’t pay beyond a certain cap.

Potential Pitfalls of Income Share Agreements

ISAs come with some risks and drawbacks, as well. Firstly, since the repayment amount is based on income, a student who earns a lot after graduation might end up paying more than they would have with some student loans. This is because if a student earns a high income after graduating, they’d pay more to the fund. Second, the terms of repayment can vary widely, and some programs require graduates to give up a huge chunk of their paychecks.

For example, Lambda School , an online program that trains students to be software engineers, requires alums who earn at least $50,000 to pay 17% of their income for two years (up to $30,000). This can be a burden for recent graduates, especially compared to other options like income-driven repayment, which determines the percentage of income going towards student loans based on discretionary income.

Currently, there is very little regulation of ISAs, so students should read ISA terms carefully to understand what they’re signing up for.

No matter what, income share agreements are still funding that needs to be repaid, often at a higher amount than the principal.

So you’re still paying more overall for your education compared to finding sources of income like scholarships, a part-time job, gifts from family, or reducing expenses through lifestyle changes or going to a less expensive school.

How Do Income Share Agreements Impact You?

Many schools’ ISA programs are designed to fill in gaps in funding when students do not receive enough from other sources, such as financial aid, federal or private student loans, scholarships or savings. Thus, it’s important to understand how an ISA will impact both your long-term finances and other methods to pay for college.

ISAs do not impact need-based aid like grants or scholarships. Students with loans, however, could have a more complicated repayment plan with multiple payments due each month.

With ISAs, there is less clarity as to how much you’ll end up repaying from up to 10 years of income. As your income changes, your payment will remain the same percentage unless it falls below the minimum income threshold ($1,666.67 at Purdue) or reaches a repayment cap.

Whereas students may pay more than the loan principal to reduce interest, ISAs often require reaching a repayment cap of roughly double the borrowed amount to be paid off early.

Depending on your future income and career path, an ISA could cut into potential savings and investments or serve as a safety net for a less stable occupation.

Who Should Consider An ISA?

As previously mentioned, income share agreements are an option for students who have maxed out on federal loans and scholarships. There are other circumstances when an ISA may or may not be worth considering.

Colleges may require a minimum GPA to be eligible for an ISA. For instance, Robert Morris University requires incoming students to have a 3.0 high school GPA and maintain a 2.75 GPA during their studies for continued funding eligibility. Taking stock of how an ISA aligns with your academic performance before accepting funding could reduce stress later on.

Since ISA programs structure repayment as a percentage of income, graduates who secure high-paying jobs can end up paying a significant sum compared to the borrowed amount. An ISA term could be more favorable to students planning to enter sectors with more gradual salary growth, such as civil service.

Repayment plans at income sharing agreement colleges are not uniform. Students at schools with lower payment caps and early repayment options may find ISAs more advantageous.

Considering Private Loans

Students should generally exhaust all their federal options for grants and loans before considering other types of debt. But for some students looking to fill gaps in their educational funding, private student loans may make more sense for their needs than ISAs.

Recommended: Examining the Different Types of Student Loans

In particular, students who expect to have high salaries after graduation may end up paying less based on interest for a private student loan than they would for an ISA. Some private loans can also allow you to reduce what you owe overall by repaying your debt ahead of schedule.

SoFi doesn’t charge any fees, including origination fees or late fees. Nor are there prepayment penalties for paying off your loan early. You can also qualify for a 0.25% reduction on your interest rate when you sign up for automated payments.

The Takeaway

As mentioned, an income share agreement is an alternate financing option for college. An ISA is generally used to fill in gaps in college funding. Generally, it’s an agreement between the borrower and the school that states the borrower will repay the funds based on their future salary for a set amount of time.

One alternative to an ISA could be private student loans. Keep in mind that private loans are generally only considered as an option after all other sources of federal aid, including federal student loans, have been exhausted.

If you’ve exhausted your federal loan options and need help paying for school, consider a SoFi private student loan.


SoFi Loan Products
SoFi loans are originated by SoFi Lending Corp. or an affiliate (dba SoFi), a lender licensed by the Department of Financial Protection and Innovation under the California Financing Law, license # 6054612; NMLS # 1121636 . For additional product-specific legal and licensing information, see SoFi.com/legal.

SoFi Private Student Loans
Please borrow responsibly. SoFi Private Student Loans are not a substitute for federal loans, grants, and work-study programs. You should exhaust all your federal student aid options before you consider any private loans, including ours. Read our FAQs.
SoFi Private Student Loans are subject to program terms and restrictions, and applicants must meet SoFi’s eligibility and underwriting requirements. See SoFi.com/eligibility for more information. To view payment examples, click here. SoFi reserves the right to modify eligibility criteria at any time. This information is subject to change. SoFi Lending Corp. and its lending products are not endorsed by or directly affiliated with any college or university unless otherwise disclosed.

External Websites: The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.
Third Party Brand Mentions: No brands or products mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.
Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.
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Source: sofi.com

What Is IPO Due Diligence?

An Initial Public Offering, or IPO, represents the first time a private company makes its shares available for trade on a public stock exchange. As part of the IPO process, private companies must perform due diligence to ensure that they’ve met all the requirements for going public. This ensures that the company follows all registration and disclosure guidelines established by the Securities Act of 1933.

Broadly speaking, IPO due diligence is similar to the due diligence performed in any other situation involving large amounts of capital. Just as an investor may research certain aspects of a company before deciding to purchase shares, a company that’s planning an IPO must have an understanding of the various factors that could positively or negatively affect its success.

If you’re interested in investing in IPOs, it’s helpful to know what goes on behind the scenes and how the IPO due diligence process works.

Recommended: How to Buy IPO Stocks

IPO Due Diligence Process

IPO due diligence typically takes place within the first 60 days of a company beginning the IPO process. During the IPO due diligence process, the IPO underwriters and IPO attorneys will work together to perform the necessary background research to gain a better understanding of the company, its management and its financials. This involves gathering the follow information:

1. Organizational Data

During the first stage of the IPO due diligence process, the underwriters and attorneys gather information about the company’s organizational structure. This may include requesting copies of any or all of the following:

•   Articles of incorporation

•   A list of the company’s shareholders and committees

•   An overview of the number of shares owned per individual shareholder

•   Annual business reports for the previous three years

•   Company business plans or strategic plans

•   A breakdown of the company’s organizational structure, including board members, directors, and employees

The underwriting team may also request a copy of a certificate in good standing from the State Secretary, along with information on organizational decision-making.

2. Licensing and Taxation

The next step in IPO due diligence involves collecting information about the company’s licensing and taxes. At this stage, the IPO underwriter and/or attorneys may request copies of:

•   All business licenses currently issued to the company

•   Annual tax returns

•   Government licenses and permits held by the company

•   Employment tax filings

•   Comprehensive reports of the company’s tax filing data

The underwriting team may look back three years or more when analyzing income tax returns and tax filing information.

3. Board and Employee Information

Due diligence can also extend to information about the company’s board of directors, its managers, and its employees. At this phase of IPO due diligence, underwriters and attorney may request:

•   A list of all individuals it employees

•   Information about employee status, including each employee’s position and salary

•   Details regarding employee benefits and bonuses, according to position

•   A copy of company policies relating to sick leave or conflict resolution

•   Details about employee insurance benefits, including health, disability and life insurance

•   Copies of resumes for leading personnel

•   Copies of employee audits

With regard to employee audits, underwriters can look back two to three years.

4. Financial Information

A company’s finances can come under close scrutiny during the IPO due diligence process. When considering financial information, the IPO underwriting and legal team may review:

•   Copies of broker or investment banking arrangements

•   Company financial statements records, including previous financial audits

•   A list of all financial accounts help by the company

•   Copies of financial analyst reports

•   Information about the company’s inventory holdings

•   Details regarding the company’s accounting and amortization methods

•   A list of all fixed and variable expenses

The time frame for which underwriters can review financial information can stretch from the previous three to five years, depending on what they’re examining.

Recommended: How to Read Financial Statements

5. Customer/Service Information

Due diligence also takes into account interactions with customers and service practices. During this step, the underwriting team may request:

•   Reports or information about the products and services offered by the company

•   Details about consumer complaints filed against the company

•   Information about legal approvals for the company’s products and services

•   Copies of the company’s trading policies

•   Details regarding the company’s marketing strategies as well as copies of marketing materials

The underwriters may also need to see copies of customer supply or service agreements.

6. Company Property

Last but not least, IPO underwriters will examine property holdings owned by the company. This can include reviewing information about:

•   Business locations

•   Real estate agreements and/or franchise licenses

•   Trademarks and copyrights held by the company

•   Approved patents held by the company

•   Trademark complaints, if applicable

•   Official contracts showing the purchase of real estate

The underwriters may also ask for a full inventory of any physical or real property the company owns.

Objective of IPO Due Diligence

During due diligence, the underwriting team is working to gain a full understanding of how the company operates, how it’s structured, how healthy it is financially, and whether there are any potential issues that could be a roadblock to going public. The due diligence process effectively clears the way for the next steps in the IPO process.

The IPO due diligence process ensures that there are no surprises waiting to crop up that could derail a company’s progress. It’s also an opportunity for the underwriting team, the IPO attorneys and the company itself to assess any potential risk factors that may affect the IPO’s outcome.

Benefits of Due Diligence Process

IPO due diligence has benefits for both the company and investors.

IPO Due Diligence Benefits to the Company

•   Due diligence offers an opportunity to explore the viability of an IPO, based on the company’s business model, financials, capital needs and anticipated demand for its shares.

•   Due diligence also allows the company to avoid going afoul of regulatory guidelines, and it can help to identify any issues the company may need to address before going public.

IPO Due Diligence Benefits to Investors

•   The due diligence process can reveal more about a company than the information in the initial red herring prospectus. In IPO investing, a red herring refers to the initial prospectus compiled for SEC registration purposes.

•   If investors feel confident about the information they have, that could help to fuel the success of the IPO which can mean more capital raised for the company and better returns for those who purchase its shares.

Next Steps in Filing IPO

Once the underwriting team has completed its due diligence, the company can move on to the next steps involved in how to file an Initial Public Offering (IPO). Again, that includes:

•   SEC review

•   IPO roadshow

•   Pricing

•   Launch

•   Stabilization

•   Transition to market

The SEC review typically takes between 90 and 150 days to complete. Now, it’s up to the SEC to determine that all regulatory requirements have been met. Usually, the team conducting the review includes one or more attorneys and one or more accountants.

Next, comes the roadshow. During the roadshow, the company presents details about the IPO to potential investors. This step of the IPO process allows the company and underwriters to gauge interest in the offering and attract investors.

IPO pricing usually involves a closer look at the company’s financials, including its valuation and cash flow. Underwriters may also consider valuations for similar competitors when determining the appropriate IPO price.

After setting the IPO price, the underwriters and the company will schedule the IPO launch. Once the IPO launches, investors can purchase shares of the company. The underwriter does the steering on price stabilization movements during the 25 days following the launch, after which the company transitions to market competition, concluding the IPO process.

The Takeaway

IPO due diligence is an important part of the IPO process. Thanks to due diligence, investors who want to purchase IPO stock can feel confident that a company about to go public complies with all relevant SEC regulations.

If you’re interested in purchasing IPO stock, it’s easier than you might think to gain access to newly-launched companies. With a brokerage account on the SoFi Invest investment app, members can invest in IPOs.

Photo credit: iStock/porcorex


SoFi Invest®
The information provided is not meant to provide investment or financial advice. Investment decisions should be based on an individual’s specific financial needs, goals and risk profile. SoFi can’t guarantee future financial performance. Advisory services offered through SoFi Wealth, LLC. SoFi Securities, LLC, member FINRA / SIPC . SoFi Invest refers to the three investment and trading platforms operated by Social Finance, Inc. and its affiliates (described below). Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of the platforms below.
1) Automated Investing—The Automated Investing platform is owned by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC Registered Investment Advisor (“Sofi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC, an affiliated SEC registered broker dealer and member FINRA/SIPC, (“Sofi Securities).

2) Active Investing—The Active Investing platform is owned by SoFi Securities LLC. Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.

3) Cryptocurrency is offered by SoFi Digital Assets, LLC, a FinCEN registered Money Service Business.

For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above, including state licensure of Sofi Digital Assets, LLC, please visit www.sofi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform. Information related to lending products contained herein should not be construed as an offer or pre-qualification for any loan product offered by SoFi Lending Corp and/or its affiliates.
IPOs: Investing early in IPO stock involves substantial risk of loss. The decision to invest should always be made as part of a comprehensive financial plan taking individual circumstances and risk appetites into account.
SOIN1021434

Source: sofi.com

The Best Cities for Public Transportation

If you’re looking to have an easy commute or just want to spend less time in your car, these cities are great options for using public transportation.

According to the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Americans board public transportation 34 million times. Every. Single. Weekday.

That adds up to a whopping 9.9 billion trips per year. And why not? Beyond the obvious savings of traveling by bus, train, trolley or metro — both financial and environmental — leaving the driving to someone else allows you to kick back and text, read, work, or snooze to your heart’s content. And let’s be honest, road rage is for suckers.

If you’re one of us in-the-know commuters, you’re going to want to check out our list of the best cities in America for public transportation.

Takeaways about the best cities for public transportation

You’re used to looking at route maps, right? Yeah, we know. This is why we created this interactive map to highlight the top 150 cities for public transportation. Can you guess which cities made our top 10? You’re probably not too far off.

Dashboard 1
  • The Northeast region has the strongest representation among our top 10.
  • The No. 1 city boasts a whopping 1,148 stations across the city.
  • Providence, RI has the lowest price for a monthly unlimited pass.

These are the 10 best cities for public transportation

The best cities for public transportation are mostly urban centers with fantastic infrastructure. So, don’t expect to see a “city” like Des Moines make the cut.

And while the East Coast may have the slightest overall edge, you’ll find at least a couple of cities in every major region of the country represented here. Read on to find out which U.S. cities are the best for public transportation.

10. Minneapolis, MN

minneapolis mn

minneapolis mn

Minneapolis is serious about keeping its citizens warm and comfortable. Take, for example, the Minneapolis Skyway, a 9.5-mile network of enclosed heated walkways. And while that makes traveling on foot a breeze — even in the dead of winter — sometimes, you need to travel farther than your own two feet will take you.

And for those trips, there’s the METRO light-rail, along with 18 bus lines to choose from, including fare-free “Free Ride” buses you can hop on along Nicollet Mall.

Even for the rides that aren’t free, your public transportation budget will go far in Minneapolis — the second cheapest city in our top 10 for transport (monthly unlimited).

Think living in this half of the Twin Cities is your speed? Get the scoop on the best neighborhoods in Minneapolis, find an apartment and stock up on some serious winter wear.

9. Miami, FL

miami fl

miami fl

Is Minneapolis too chilly (OK, frigid) for your taste? Perhaps you should consider the opposite tip of the country. Down in Miami, the vibe is endless sunshine and permanent vacation mode. And while traffic is no joke (understatement), public transportation is a stress-free way to get around the city.

First, you’ve got the charming free trolleys, which come every 15 minutes. If no-charge sounds pretty good, you’ll also love the Metromover, which you can pick up in Brickell or Downtown. Trying to get down to Coral Gables, Coconut Grove or South Miami? Hop on the Metrorail. And for getting around Miami Beach, the bus is your best option. Get up to speed on everything you need to know about living in Miami and start searching for your South Florida apartment.

8. Philadelphia, PA

philadelphia pa

philadelphia pa

Living in Philly gives you all the East Coast arts, culture, education and sports you can handle — without the N.Y.C. price tag. You get a lot more bang for your buck in Philadelphia, and you’ll still find a public transportation system that rivals that of the Big Apple.

The Southeast Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) is the country’s sixth-largest public transit system. More than 1.3 million people ride SEPTA’s train, subway, trolley and bus lines every day. The extensive system makes it simple and convenient to explore all that both Philadelphia and the surrounding areas have to offer.

7. Providence, RI

providence rhode island

providence rhode island

If you live in Providence, you’ll enjoy the cheapest price for a monthly unlimited travel pass among our top 10. The capital of our nation’s smallest state is home to Brown University and the Rhode Island School of Design. Getting around town is a breeze for co-eds, commuters and everyone in-between.

The Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA) provides low-cost bus and trolley services around the city. In the summer, there are even routes to the beach. Better yet, all of the buses have bike racks so you can explore Rhode Island on two wheels. And if you want to really soak up the scenery, take the hour-long ferry ride from Providence to Newport.

Plus, Providence is a stop on one of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority’s (MBTA) commuter rail lines, so you can get to Boston in just over an hour.

6. Seattle, WA

seattle wa

seattle wa

Have you ever gazed out over the Puget Sound at the majestic Cascade Mountains on one of those magical sunny days in Seattle? It’s the kind of scene you don’t soon forget. And while those sunny days are somewhat rare, there’s a lot to love about living in Seattle, from the coffee culture to the ease of getting around on the fantastic public transportation system.

Grab an ORCA card and hop on the city’s easy-to-navigate streetcars, light rail and busses. Not only are there ferries from which to soak up those amazing views, but Seattle also boasts a monorail. Considering a move to Emerald City? Scope out the best neighborhoods in Seattle, then start searching for a place to live.

5. Chicago, IL

chicago il

chicago il

Even if you’ve never ridden it before, you’ve probably heard of “the L.” Short for “elevated train,” locals and visitors alike love the L because it’s both cheap and easy to use. And here in a city with two airports, easy public transportation is key.

Take the L’s Blue Line to O’Hare International Airport (ORD) or the Orange Line to get to Chicago Midway International Airport (MDW). The Chicago Transit Authority also has an extensive bus system, while the Metra regional train system will take you through downtown Chicago and to the suburbs and cities beyond. Whether you’re looking to live large in a luxury apartment building, or you’re looking for a budget-conscious ‘hood, you’ll find a wide range of apartments in Chicago.

4. San Francisco, CA

san francisco ca

san francisco ca

Here’s the thing about living in San Francisco. As far as cities go, it’s fairly compact, so nothing is too far away. Which makes it seem like you’ll probably be fine on foot. But there’s one huge consideration — the hills. Depending on how big your calf muscles are, and how hard you want them to work, you’re going to need to lean on public transportation at some point to cruise you up those inclines.

Fortunately, you can travel in style on the city’s iconic trolleys. Or, take the BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit), a rail system that will take you all around the Bay Area. If you’re staying in the city, MUNI has you covered with an extensive network of trains, buses and cable cars. If there’s one place you don’t need a car, it’s San Francisco. Plus, the city is expensive enough without paying for your own set of wheels.

3. Washington, D.C.

washington dc

washington dc

OK, let’s start with the bad news: Washington, D.C. is the third-most congested city in the country. Boo. But that’s exactly why you don’t want a car here, or really need one for that matter. The best way to escape road rage? On the subway. The Metrorail is the most efficient way to get around Washington, D.C. There’s also the Metrobus and the D.C. Circulator if you want to brave the roads — and prefer your public transportation with a bit of natural sunlight.

And since there are so many sights to see, even locals can appreciate the more tourist-oriented modes of transportation. Spend a sunny day on a boat ride across the Potomac, or hop on one of D.C.’s trolley tours to soak up the sights without stress. Fancy living in the nation’s capital? Take a quiz to find out which Washington, D.C., neighborhood is best for you.

2. Boston, MA

boston ma

boston ma

Beantown is an excellent city to traverse on foot. And when you’re not walking, you’re going to want to hop on the “T.” More formally known as the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA), the five-line system has subways, trains, buses and trolleys that connect you to all of downtown Boston’s neighborhoods.

And who doesn’t love water taxis? Cruise across Boston Harbor on a boat and pat yourself on the back for avoiding some of the country’s worst traffic. Warming up to the idea of an East Coast move? Get up to speed on the cost of living in Boston, then find your perfect Boston apartment.

1. New York, NY

new york ny

new york ny

No surprise here, right? New York has long been the best city for public transportation in America. Of course, there are the iconic yellow taxis, but you simply can’t get much more connected than New York’s subway system. This impressive 24-hour network goes well beyond the city to shuttle commuters to both Long Island and New Jersey. With 1,148 train stations and 1,224 station lines, New York is untouchable when it comes to public transportation.

Having a car in N.Y.C. is not only near impossible (financially and otherwise), it’s simply not necessary. Put all of the energy you save in navigating the roads into your New York apartment search. It’s no secret that the Big Apple requires a big budget, and finding an affordable apartment is going to take some research. Start by figuring out which New York neighborhood is best for your lifestyle.

Methodology

To find the best cities for public transportation, we looked at metrics related to public transportation usage, accessibility and cost.

Features were normalized and then weighted based on the following scale:

Usage: 25 points

  • Percentage of public transportation users: 25 points

Accessibility: 50 points

  • Bus Lines per density: 10 points
  • Public transit stations per density: 10 points
  • Number of tracks: 10 points
  • Transit lines per density: 10 points
  • Number of transit systems: 10 points

Cost: 25 points

  • Price for a 30-day pass: 12.5 points
  • Percentage of pass cost related to local mean income: 12.5 points

Transit system info was from citylines.co. Transit cost was from ValuePenguin. Bus lines were from a database of 8 million commercially available business listings. These listings may not reflect recent changes to bus line availability. Usage is from the U.S. Census Bureau.

Rent prices are based on a rolling weighted average from Apartment Guide and Rent.com’s multifamily rental property inventory as of October 2021. Our team uses a weighted average formula that more accurately represents price availability for each unit type and reduces the influence of seasonality on rent prices in specific markets.

The rent information included in this article is used for illustrative purposes only. The data contained herein do not constitute financial advice or a pricing guarantee for any apartment.

Source: rent.com

What Is a Blockchain Explorer? Guide to Block Explorers

A blockchain is a public ledger of transactions. Whenever someone sends Bitcoin or another cryptocurrency from one wallet to another, the transaction is recorded on the ledger.

But how does anyone view the transaction? The simplest way is by using something called a block explorer.

What Is a Block Explorer?

A cryptocurrency block explorer is an online blockchain browser that can show the details of all transactions that have ever happened on a blockchain network.

There are block explorers for Bitcoin and also for individual altcoins. Some block explorers can be used on multiple different networks, while others are only for one specific blockchain. A BTC block explorer, for example, would only be able to find information from the Bitcoin network, such as when someone is sending Bitcoin to another wallet.

A block explorer can be used to find any specific transaction or view the recent history of the chain more generally.

What Can You Do With a Blockchain Explorer?

A blockchain explorer allows users to view blockchain activity. Users might use block explorers to track the status of a pending transaction (technically referred to as exploring Mempool status, since the transaction has not yet been recorded in a block and added to the chain) or to view the balance of a wallet they hold without having to use the crypto wallet itself.

Beyond these types of tasks, block explorers can also be used to:

•   Examine the history of any wallet address, including all transactions sent to and from that address.

•   Explore change addresses, which are transaction outputs that return coins to the spender in an effort to prevent too much of the input value being spent on transaction fees.

•   View blocks that aren’t attached to the main blockchain and whose parent blockchain is unknown. These are called “orphaned blocks.”

•   Explore the largest transaction that was sent in the last 24 hours.

•   Explore the number of double-spend transactions happening in a blockchain.

•   Discover the individual or mining pool who mined a specific block.

•   Explore the genesis block, or the first block that was ever mined on a given chain.

•   See other information specific to a blockchain, such as average transaction fees, hash rate, mining difficulty, and other data.

There are also more advanced use cases for block explorers, but these are mostly utilized by companies that create sophisticated software to track criminal activity or try to predict cryptocurrency prices.

How Do Blockchain Explorers Work?

An explorer is basically a blockchain search engine. It can be used to search for just about any information pertaining to the state of a specific blockchain that someone might want to know. The details of every crypto wallet and all of its transactions and more can all be found using a blockchain explorer.

Before we get into the step-by-step of this process, there are a few key terms worth knowing.

•   Rational Database: Allows for the storage of data in a table in terms of how each piece of data is related to others. Rather than having one giant block table with all details for each block, entries can be organized according to their type and relation to similar entries, for example.

•   Structured Query Language (SQL): A protocol for searching a database, or giving a query. Software of this nature can create a table in a database, insert records into that table, search for a given term, then create a new table with relevant results and present them on a web page.

•   Application Programming Interface (API): A protocol that makes it possible for users to communicate with computers through software. APIs define the formatting details for responses that are sent and received by the software being used.

How a Blockchain Explorer Works, Step by Step

From a technical perspective, here’s what it looks like:

1.    Blockchain explorers use application programming interfaces (APIs), rational databases, and SQL databases alongside a blockchain node to retrieve information from a network.

2.    The software organizes this information into a database and displays things in a searchable format.

3.    The explorer can then be used to perform searches through an organized table in response to user demands through a simple user interface (think: search engine) that allows people to conduct searches.

4.    The explorer server creates a web page through which it can interact with users.

5.    An API also allows the explorer to interface with other computers.

6.    Search requests are sent to the backend server, which then responds to the user interface.

7.    Finally, the user interface and API sends web pages in HTML format to the user’s browser so the results can be read in a manner that is easy to understand.

Examples of Blockchain Explorers

What follows are some of the most popular blockchain explorers. There are different explorers for different types of cryptocurrency, though some explorers can be used to search multiple chains.

Blockchain.org

Blockchain.org, formerly known as Blockchain.com, is a popular Bitcoin block explorer. It allows users to search the Bitcoin blockchain by transaction, address, or block. Many Bitcoin users have probably used Blockchain.org at some point to monitor or record their Bitcoin transactions.

Blockchair

While most block explorers work on only one blockchain, Blockchair can be used to search multiple chains. This explorer allows for searches on the Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, and Bitcoin blockchains. Users can look up words, mining difficulty, Mempool size, and nodes.

Tokenview

Tokenview also allows for searches to be conducted on multiple blockchains — more than 20 of them, in fact. This explorer is based in China and was launched in 2018.

Etherscan

Etherscan might be the most popular blockchain explorer for the Ethereum network. It allows users to conduct searches for ETH addresses, wallet balances, transactions, smart contracts, and more.

The Takeaway

A block explorer can be thought of as a search engine for a blockchain — allowing a user to find lots of different information about that blockchain.

To use a block explorer, you simply visit its website and enter the information you’re looking for. To look up a pending transaction currently stored in the Mempool, for example, you could enter the transaction hash ID provided by your wallet or exchange.

Or, those curious about blockchain technology could just use the block explorer to “explore” the blockchain in general and look at things like the largest transactions, the most recently mined block, or hash rate.

Looking to invest in cryptocurrency? With a SoFi Invest® brokerage account, investors can trade more than two dozen cryptocurrencies, including Chainlink, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Dogecoin, Solana, Bitcoin, Litecoin, Cardano, and Enjin Coin.

Find out how to get started with SoFi Invest.

Photo credit: iStock/solidcolours


SoFi Invest®
The information provided is not meant to provide investment or financial advice. Investment decisions should be based on an individual’s specific financial needs, goals and risk profile. SoFi can’t guarantee future financial performance. Advisory services offered through SoFi Wealth, LLC. SoFi Securities, LLC, member FINRA / SIPC . SoFi Invest refers to the three investment and trading platforms operated by Social Finance, Inc. and its affiliates (described below). Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of the platforms below.
1) Automated Investing—The Automated Investing platform is owned by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC Registered Investment Advisor (“Sofi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC, an affiliated SEC registered broker dealer and member FINRA/SIPC, (“Sofi Securities).

2) Active Investing—The Active Investing platform is owned by SoFi Securities LLC. Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.

3) Cryptocurrency is offered by SoFi Digital Assets, LLC, a FinCEN registered Money Service Business.

For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above, including state licensure of Sofi Digital Assets, LLC, please visit www.sofi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform. Information related to lending products contained herein should not be construed as an offer or pre-qualification for any loan product offered by SoFi Lending Corp and/or its affiliates.
Crypto: Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies aren’t endorsed or guaranteed by any government, are volatile, and involve a high degree of risk. Consumer protection and securities laws don’t regulate cryptocurrencies to the same degree as traditional brokerage and investment products. Research and knowledge are essential prerequisites before engaging with any cryptocurrency. US regulators, including FINRA , the SEC , and the CFPB , have issued public advisories concerning digital asset risk. Cryptocurrency purchases should not be made with funds drawn from financial products including student loans, personal loans, mortgage refinancing, savings, retirement funds or traditional investments. Limitations apply to trading certain crypto assets and may not be available to residents of all states.
Third Party Brand Mentions: No brands or products mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.
Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.
SOIN1021458

Source: sofi.com

12 Best Monthly Dividend Stocks and Funds to Buy for 2022

For all the changes we’ve experienced in recent years, some things remain regrettably the same. We all have bills to pay, and those bills generally come monthly. Whether it’s your mortgage, your car payment or even your regular phone and utility bills, you’re generally expected to pay every month.

While we’re in our working years, that’s not necessarily a problem, as paychecks generally come every two weeks. And even for those in retirement, Social Security and (if you’re lucky enough to have one) pension payments also come on a regular monthly schedule. But unfortunately, it doesn’t work that way in our investment portfolios. 

That’s where monthly dividend stocks come into play.

Dividend-paying stocks generally pay quarterly, and most bonds pay semiannually, or twice per year. This has a way of making portfolio income lumpy, as dividend and interest payments often come in clusters.

Well, monthly dividend stocks can help smooth out that income stream and better align your inflows with your outflows.

“We’d never recommend buying a stock purely because it has a monthly dividend,” says Rachel Klinger, president of McCann Wealth Strategies, an investment adviser based in State College, Pennsylvania. “But monthly dividend stocks can be a nice addition to a portfolio and can add a little regularity to an investor’s income stream.”

Today, we’re going to look at 12 of the best monthly dividend stocks and funds to buy as we get ready to start 2022. You’ll see some similarities across the selections as monthly dividend stocks tend to be concentrated in a small handful of sectors such as real estate investment trusts (REITs), closed-end funds (CEFs) and business development companies (BDCs). These sectors tend to be more income-focused than growth-focused and sport yields that are vastly higher than the market average.

But in a market where the yield on the S&P 500 is currently 1.25%, that’s certainly welcome. 

The list isn’t particularly diversified, so it doesn’t make a complete portfolio. In other words, you don’t want to overload your portfolio with monthly dividend stocks. But they do allow exposure to a handful of niche sectors that add some income stability, so take a look and see if any of these monthly payers align with your investment style.

Data is as of Nov. 21. Dividend yields are calculated by annualizing the most recent payout and dividing by the share price. Fund discount/premium to NAV and expense ratio provided by CEF Connect.

1 of 12

Realty Income

7-11 store7-11 store
  • Market value: $40.1 billion
  • Dividend yield: 4.2%

Perhaps no stock in history has been more associated with monthly dividends than conservative triple-net retail REIT Realty Income (O, $70.91). The company went so far as to trademark the “The Monthly Dividend Company” as its official nickname.

Realty Income is a stock, of course, and its share price can be just as volatile as any other stock. But it’s still as close to a bond as you’re going to get in the stock market. It has stable recurring rental cash flows from its empire of more than 7,000 properties spread across roughly 650 tenants.

Realty Income focuses on high-traffic retail properties that are generally recession-proof and, perhaps more importantly, “Amazon.com-proof.” Perhaps no business is completely free of risk of competition from Amazon.com (AMZN) and other e-commerce titans, but Realty Income comes close. 

Its largest tenants include 7-Eleven, Walgreens Boots Alliance (WBA), FedEx (FDX) and Home Depot (HD), among others. The portfolio had relatively high exposure to gyms and movie theaters, which made the pandemic painful. But as the world gets closer to normal with every passing day, Realty Income’s COVID-19 risk gets reduced that much more.

At current prices, Realty Income yields about 4.2%. While that’s not a monster yield, remember that the 10-year Treasury yields only 1.6%. 

It’s not the raw yield we’re looking for here, but rather income consistency and growth. As of this writing, Realty Income has made 616 consecutive monthly dividend payments and has raised its dividend for 96 consecutive quarters – making it a proud member of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats. Since going public in 1994, Realty Income has grown its dividend at a compound annual growth rate of 4.5%, well ahead of inflation.

2 of 12

Stag Industrial

warehousewarehouse
  • Market value: $7.6 billion
  • Dividend yield: 3.4%

Realty Income was pretty darn close to “Amazon.com-proof.” But fellow monthly payer STAG Industrial (STAG, $42.77) proactively benefits from the rise of internet commerce.

STAG invests in logistics and light industrial properties. You know those gritty warehouse properties you might see near the airport with 18-wheelers constantly coming and going? That’s exactly the kind of property that STAG buys and holds.

It’s a foregone conclusion that e-commerce is growing by leaps and bounds, and STAG is positioned to profit from it. Approximately 40% of STAG’s portfolio handles e-commerce fulfillment or other activity, and Amazon.com is its largest tenant.

E-commerce spiked during the pandemic for obvious reasons. As stores have reopened, the effects of that spike have dissipated somewhat, but the trend here is clear. We’re making a larger percentage of our purchases online.

Yet there’s still plenty of room for growth. As crazy as this might sound, only about 15% of retail sales are made online, according to Statista. Furthermore, the logistical space is highly fragmented, and Stag’s management estimates the value of their market to be around $1 trillion. In other words, it’s unlikely STAG will be running out of opportunities any time soon.

STAG isn’t sexy. But it’s one of the best monthly dividend stocks to buy in 2022, with a long road of growth in front of it. And its 3.4% yield is competitive in this market.

3 of 12

Gladstone Commercial

industrial parkindustrial park
  • Market value: $838.2 million
  • Dividend yield: 6.7%

For another gritty industrial play, consider the shares of Gladstone Commercial (GOOD, $22.49). Gladstone Commercial, like STAG, has a large portfolio of logistical and light industrial properties. Approximately 48% of its rental revenues come from industrial properties with another 48% coming from office properties. The remaining 4% is split between retail properties, at 3%, and medical offices at 1%.

It’s a diversified portfolio that has had little difficulty navigating the crazy volatility of the past few years. As of Sept. 30, 2021, the REIT had a portfolio of 127 properties spread across 27 states and leased to 109 distinct tenants. In management’s own words, “We have grown our portfolio 18% per year in a consistent, disciplined manner since our IPO in 2003. Our occupancy stands at 97.7% and has never dipped below 95.0%.”

That’s not a bad run.

Gladstone Commercial has also been one of the most consistent monthly dividend stocks, paying one uninterrupted since January 2005. GOOD currently yields an attractive 6.7%.

4 of 12

EPR Properties

movie theater and tub of popcornmovie theater and tub of popcorn
  • Market value: $3.7 billion
  • Dividend yield: 6.1%

The COVID-19 pandemic was rough on a lot of landlords. But few were as uniquely battered as EPR Properties (EPR, $49.21). EPR owns a diverse and eclectic portfolio of movie theaters, amusement parks, ski parks, “eat and play” properties like Topgolf, and a host of others.

EPR specializes in experiences over things … which is just about the worst way to be positioned at a time when social distancing was the norm. Essentially every property EPR owned was closed for at least a time, and crowds still haven’t returned to pre-COVID levels across much of the portfolio.

But the key here is that the worst is long behind EPR Properties, and the more normal life becomes, the better the outlook for EPR’s tenants.

EPR was a consistent dividend payer and raiser pre-pandemic. But with its tenants facing an existential crisis, the REIT cut its dividend in 2020. With business conditions massively improving in 2021, EPR reinstated its monthly dividend in July, and the shares now yield an attractive 6.1%. If you believe in life after COVID, EPR is one of the best monthly dividend stocks to play it.

5 of 12

LTC Properties

senior living propertysenior living property
  • Market value: $1.3 billion
  • Dividend yield: 6.7%

For one final “traditional” REIT, consider the shares of LTC Properties (LTC, $34.24).

LTC faces some short-term headwinds due to the lingering effects of the pandemic, but its longer-term outlook is bright. LTC is a REIT with a portfolio roughly split equally between senior living properties and skilled nursing facilities.

Needless to say, COVID-19 was hard on this sector. Nursing homes were particularly susceptible to outbreaks, and nursing home residents were at particularly high risk given their age. 

Senior living properties are different in that the tenants are generally younger and live independently without medical care. But a lot of would-be tenants were reluctant to move out of their homes and into a more densely populated building during a raging pandemic. And many still are.

These lingering effects won’t disappear tomorrow. But ultimately, senior living facilities offer an attractive, active lifestyle for many seniors, and that hasn’t fundamentally changed. And home care might be a viable option for many seniors in need of skilled nursing. Ultimately there comes a point where there are few alternatives to the care of a nursing home.

Importantly, the longer-term demographic trends here are all but unstoppable. The peak of the Baby Boomer generation are in their early-to-mid-60s today, far too young to need long-term care. But over the course of the next two decades, demand will continue to build as more and more boomers age into the proper age bracket for these services.

At 6.7%, LTC is one of the higher-yielding monthly dividend stocks on this list.

6 of 12

AGNC Investment

couple going over financials with mortgage brokercouple going over financials with mortgage broker
  • Market value: $8.4 billion
  • Dividend yield: 9.0%

AGNC Investment (AGNC, $15.98) is a REIT, strictly speaking, but it’s very different from the likes of Realty Income, STAG or any of the others covered on this list of monthly dividend stocks. Rather than own properties, AGNC owns a portfolio of mortgage securities. This gives it the same tax benefits of a REIT – no federal income taxes so long as the company distributes at least 90% of its net income as dividends – but a very different return profile.

Mortgage REITs (mREITs) are designed to be income vehicles with capital gains not really much of a priority. As such, they tend to be monster yielders. Case in point: AGNC yields 9%.

Say “AGNC” out loud. It sounds a lot like “agency,” right?

There’s a reason for that. AGNC invests exclusively in agency mortgage-backed securities, meaning bonds and other securities issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Ginnie Mae or the Federal Home Loan Banks. This makes it one of the safest plays in this space.

And here’s a nice kicker: AGNC almost always trades at a premium to book value, which makes sense. You and I lack the capacity to replicate what AGNC does in house and lack access to financing on the same terms. Those benefits have value, which show up in a premium share price. Yet today, AGNC trades at a 9% discount to book value. That’s a fantastic price for the stock in this space.

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Dynex Capital

little house on chartlittle house on chart
  • Market value: $640.6 million
  • Dividend yield: 8.9%

Along the same lines, let’s take a look at Dynex Capital (DX, $17.47). Like AGNC, Dynex is a mortgage REIT, though its portfolio is a little more diverse. Approximately 85% of its portfolio is invested in agency residential mortgage-backed securities – bonds made out of the mortgages of ordinary Americans – but it also has exposure to commercial mortgage-backed securities and a small allocation to non-agency securities.

It’s important to remember that the mortgage REIT sector was eviscerated by the COVID-19 bear market. When the world first went under lockdown, it wasn’t immediately clear that millions of Americans would be able to continue paying their mortgages, which led investors to sell first and ask questions later. In the bloodbath that followed, many mortgage REITs took catastrophic losses and some failed altogether.

Dynex is one of the survivors. And frankly, any mortgage REIT that could survive the upheaval of 2020 is one that can likely survive the apocalypse. Your risk of ruin should be very modest here.

Dynex trades at a slight discount to book value and sports a juicy 8.9% yield. We could see some volatility in the space if the Fed ever gets around to raising rates, but for now this looks like one of the best monthly dividend stocks to buy if you’re looking to really pick up some yield.

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Broadmark Realty

real estate contract with keys and penreal estate contract with keys and pen
  • Market value: $1.3 billion
  • Dividend yield: 8.6%

Broadmark Realty (BRMK, $9.75) isn’t a “mortgage REIT,” per se, as it doesn’t own mortgages or mortgage-backed securities. But it does something awfully similar. Broadmark manages a portfolio of deed of trust loans for the purpose of funding development or investment in real estate.

This is a little different than AGNC or Dynex. These mortgage REITs primarily trade standardized mortgage-backed securities. Broadmark instead deals with the less-liquid world of construction loans.

Still, BRMK runs a conservative book. The weighted average loan-to-value of its portfolio is a very modest 60%. In other words, Broadmark would lend no more than $60,000 for a property valued at $100,000. This gives the company a wide margin of error in the event of a default by a borrower.

At current prices, Broadmark yields an attractive 8.6%. The company initiated its monthly dividend in late 2019 and sailed through the pandemic with no major issues.  

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Main Street Capital

person doing business on computerperson doing business on computer
  • Market value: $3.2 billion
  • Dividend yield: 5.5%

We know that the pandemic hit Main Street a lot harder than Wall Street. It is what it is.

But what about business development companies. This is where the proverbial Main Street means the proverbial Wall Street. BDCs provide debt and equity capital mostly to middle-market companies. These are entities that have gotten a little big to get financing from bank loans and retained earnings but aren’t quite big enough yet to warrant a stock or bond IPO. BDCs exist to bridge that gap.

The appropriately named Main Street Capital (MAIN, $46.61) is a best-in-class BDC based in Houston, Texas. The last two years were not particularly easy for Main Street’s portfolio companies, as many smaller firms were less able to navigate the lockdowns. But the company persevered, and its share price recently climbed above its pre-pandemic highs.

Main Street has a conservative monthly dividend model in that it pays a relatively modest monthly dividend, but then uses any excess earnings to issue special dividends twice per year. This keeps Main Street out of trouble and prevents it from suffering the embarrassment of a dividend cut in years where earnings might be temporarily depressed.

As far as monthly dividend stocks go, Main Street’s regular payout works out to a respectable 5.6%, and this does not include the special dividends.

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Prospect Capital

man signing contractman signing contract
  • Market value: $3.5 billion
  • Dividend yield: 8.0%

For another high-yielding, monthly-paying BDC, consider the shares of Prospect Capital (PSEC, $8.97).

Like most BDCs, Prospect Capital provides debt and equity financing to middle-market companies. The company has been publicly traded since 2004, so it’s proven to be a survivor in what has been a wildly volatile two decades.

Prospect Capital is objectively cheap, as it trades at just 89% of book value. Book value itself can be somewhat subjective, of course. But the 11% gives us a good degree of wiggle room. It’s safe to say the company, even under conservative assumptions, is selling for less than the value of its underlying portfolio. It also yields a very healthy 8.0%.

As a general rule, insider buying is a good sign. When the management team is using their own money to buy shares, that shows a commitment to the company and an alignment of interests. Well, over the course of the past two years, the management team bought more than 29 million PSEC shares combined. These weren’t stock options or executive stock grants. These are shares that the insiders bought themselves in their brokerage accounts.

That’s commitment.

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Ecofin Sustainable and Social Impact Term Fund

Ecofin logoEcofin logo
  • Assets under management: $269.7 million
  • Distribution Rate: 6.0%*
  • Discount/premium to NAV: -14.3%
  • Expense ratio: 2.28%**

There’s something to be said for orphan stocks. There are certain stocks or funds that simply don’t have a “normal” go-to buying clientele.

As a case in point, consider the Ecofin Sustainable and Social Impact Term Fund (TEAF, $15.00). This is a fund that straddles the divide between traditional energy infrastructure like pipelines and green energy projects like solar panels. It also invests in “social impact” sectors like education and senior living. Approximately 68% of the portfolio is dedicated to sustainable infrastructure with energy infrastructure and social impact investments making up 13% and 19%, respectively.

But this isn’t the only way the fund is eclectic. It’s also a unique mixture of public and private investments. 52% is invested in publicly traded stocks with the remaining 48% invested in private, non-traded companies.

Is it any wonder that Wall Street has no idea what to do with this thing?

This lack of obvious buying clientele helps to explain why the fund trades at a large discount to net asset value of 15%.

That’s okay. We can buy this orphan stock, enjoy its 6% yield, and wait for that discount to NAV to close. And close it will. The fund is scheduled to liquidate in about 10 years, meaning the assets will be sold off and cash will be distributed to investors. Buying and holding this position at a deep discount would seem like a no-brainer of a strategy. 

Learn more about TEAF at the Ecofin provider site.

* Distribution rate is an annualized reflection of the most recent payout and is a standard measure for CEFs. Distributions can be a combination of dividends, interest income, realized capital gains and return of capital.

** Includes 1.50% in management fees, 0.28% in other expenses and 0.50% in interest expenses.

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BlackRock Municipal 2030 Target Term

BlackRock logoBlackRock logo
  • Assets under management: $1.9 billion 
  • Distribution rate: 2.9%
  • Discount/premium to NAV: -4.6%
  • Expense ratio: 1.01%**

We’ll wrap this up with another term fund, the BlackRock Municipal 2030 Target Term Fund (BTT, $25.49).

As its name suggests, the fund is designed to be liquidated in 2030, roughly eight years from now. A lot can happen in eight years, of course. But buying a portfolio of safe municipal bonds trading at a more than 4% discount to book value would seem like a smart move.

The biggest selling point of muni bonds is, of course, the tax-free income. The bond interest isn’t subject to federal income taxes. And while city, state and local bonds aren’t “risk free” – only the U.S. government can make that claim – defaults and financial distress in this space is rare. So, you’re getting a safe, tax-free payout. That’s not too shabby.

As of Oct. 29, 2021, BTT’s portfolio was spread across 633 holdings with its largest holding accounting for about 3.4%.

BTT sports a dividend yield of 2.9%. That’s not “high yield” by any stretch of the imagination. But remember, the payout is tax free, and if you’re in the 37% tax bracket, your tax-equivalent yield is a much more palatable 4.6%.

Learn more about BTT at the BlackRock provider site.

** Includes 0.40% in management fees, 0.61% in interest and other expenses

Source: kiplinger.com

The Best Places to Live in South Carolina in 2022

With its variety of beach towns and laid-back atmosphere throughout the state, there are a lot of cities considered the best places to live in South Carolina.

There are big plantation homes and tons of American history throughout the state, not to mention the unique culture of the Lowcountry. All combined, South Carolina is really like no other place in the U.S.

From outdoor fun to delicious, local eats and all the activities in between, living in South Carolina is an experience worth having. Here are 13 of the best places to live in South Carolina.

Charleston, SC

Charleston, SC

  • Population: 137,566
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,479
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,224
  • Median home price: $280,000
  • Median household income: $68, 438
  • Walk score: 63/100

With so much history packed into one town, Charleston is a great place to call home. As the starting point for the Civil War, you can explore Fort Sumter and take in a major turning point in our country’s own story.

When you’re ready to dip into the modern amenities of the city, there’s no shortage of enticing eats, preserved architecture and culture to enjoy. It’s the perfect mix of a city and a coastal town with so much to do right outside your door and so many beaches just minutes away.

Clemson, SC

Clemson, SC

  • Population: 17,501
  • 1-BR median rent: n/a
  • 2-BR median rent: $590
  • Median home price: $257,500
  • Median household income: $43,568
  • Walk score: 34/100

Of course, the biggest draw to this particular city is Clemson University. There’s plenty of student housing around this prestigious school. And, although Clemson gets billed as a college town, the city and school have a positive, intertwined community.

Leaving the draw of campus and all that football, introduces you to all the rest Clemson has to offer, including the Bob Campbell Geology Museum, the Brooks Center for Performing Arts and even the South Carolina Botanical Gardens.

Columbia, SC

Columbia, SC

  • Population: 131,674
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,067
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,103
  • Median home price: $200,000
  • Median household income: $47,286
  • Walk score: 35/100

Another college town, Columbia is home to the University of South Carolina. The campus stretches across the city, and tailgate culture is huge, everywhere. You’re most likely a football fan, to some degree, if you call this city home.

In addition to being Gamecock central, Columbia is also the state capital, bringing in a diverse population — that’s not all college students — to make the city run. It’s one of the best places to live in South Carolina because of its varied population and professional opportunities. There’s also plenty of fun things to do.

Fort Mill, SC

Fort Mill, SC

  • Population: 22,284
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,425
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,692
  • Median home price: $410,000
  • Median household income: $91,061
  • Walk score: 19/100

A charming historic district and proximity to Charlotte, NC make Fort Mill an appealing way to stay close to the city without actually living in it. Fort Mill offers miles of hiking and biking trails along its own greenway, plenty of golf and all the dining and shopping you could want.

One of the fastest-growing communities in the area, Fort Mill is drawing in families and young professionals alike — anyone who wants the combination of activity and natural beauty wrapped up in a carefully laid out town.

Greenville, SC

Greenville, SC

  • Population: 70,635
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,284
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,445
  • Median home price: $280,000
  • Median household income: $56,609
  • Walk score: 39/100

Known as an artsy city, neighborhoods in Greenville provide an eclectic mix of locations. Combining small-town charm and more urban amenities, you’ll find plenty of galleries, public festivals and events to satisfy your creative side.

Greenville is also perfectly placed for nature lovers to get a dose of outdoor beauty. Situated right in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, scenic hikes are less than an hour away. For a closer touch of nature, Falls Park lures residents in with its waterfalls and suspension bridge.

Hilton Head, SC

Hilton Head, SC

  • Population: 39,861
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,162
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,600
  • Median home price: $395,000
  • Median household income: $84,575
  • Walk score: 16/100

While you may consider Hilton Head more of a vacation spot than a living destination, the island offers something for everyone. Beautiful beaches, world-class golf, shopping, restaurants and even nightlife are all here. But, it’s not all resorts in this slice of the Lowcountry. There are plenty of communities that provide that homey feel.

Another draw of Hilton Head is its location. The island is one of the best places to live in South Carolina because of its proximity to both Savannah, GA, and Charleston. You can set yourself up for a more picturesque home life while taking advantage of big-city opportunities.

Lexington, SC

Lexington, SC

  • Population: 22,157
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,255
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,420
  • Median home price: $208,000
  • Median household income: $72,996
  • Walk score: 16/100

The historic and modern mix perfectly together in Lexington. Its historical claim to fame is the home to one of the first battles in the Revolutionary War. Another part of the city’s history revolves around commerce, and Lexington’s Old Mill stands as a symbol of the area’s commitment to small businesses.

Shopping around here means supporting locals and long-standing, family-owned shops. Its history and commerce are all in one, packaged in a quaint, suburban environment that continues to draw in young professionals and families.

Mauldin, SC

Mauldin, SC

  • Population: 25,409
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,378
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,333
  • Median home price: $249,200
  • Median household income: $67,860
  • Walk score: 28/100

A suburb of Greenville, Mauldin provides that safe, suburban feel without taking you too far away from a bustling city center. With access to everything the big city has to offer, staying close to home also provides ample opportunities for natural beauty and activity.

The 400-acre Lake Conestee Nature Park is not only a natural habitat for lots of local wildlife, but it’s also a perfect place for outdoor enthusiasts. And, it’s only five minutes from the center of town. You also can’t skip over the food in Mauldin when talking about the amenities of the town. You’ll find delicious Lowcountry cooking and plenty of great local restaurants.

Mount Pleasant, SC

Mount Pleasant, SC

  • Population: 91,684
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,525
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,783
  • Median home price: $555,500
  • Median household income: $103,232
  • Walk score: 29/100

As a South Carolina town with literally everything you could ever want, Mount Pleasant is a popular choice to call home. It’s quiet and picturesque, with strong community vibes and a variety of residents. It’s a town that caters to its population with great restaurants, shops and thriving nightlife.

Another laid-back coastal town that has it all, you’re also close to so much that makes South Carolina great. Sullivan’s Island is only a short car ride away, and Isle of Palms isn’t too far, either. On top of that, you’re less than three miles from Charleston. It’s the perfect, middle spot to enjoy everything the entire area offers.

Myrtle Beach, SC

Myrtle Beach, SC

  • Population: 34,695
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,314
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,400
  • Median home price: $250,000
  • Median household income: $43,200
  • Walk score: 23/100

Known primarily as a vacation destination that can get a little rowdy, Myrtle Beach has a lot to offer once you step away from the tourist traps and move past the amusement parks and high-rise hotels.

Taking up 60 miles of coastline, Myrtle Beach is a resort town, with all the typical amenities, and that presents a lot of opportunity both for job-seekers and entrepreneurs. There’s also the climate to consider when thinking of Myrtle as one of the best places to live in South Carolina — it’s fantastic. Mild weather and the lulling sounds of the ocean attract families, young professionals and empty-nesters to call this place home.

Rock Hill, SC

Rock Hill, SC

  • Population: 75,048
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,132
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,320
  • Median home price: $277,000
  • Median household income: $50,444
  • Walk score: 32/100

A thriving art scene gives the downtown area of Rock Hill its own signature. Named the state’s first cultural district, this area is full of galleries, museums, theaters and art studios. Not only that, but you’ll find the streets peppered with murals and sculptures from local artists.

Not an arts town alone, Rock Hill also has 31 parks, including Cherry Park and its 68 acres of hiking trails and landscaped walkways. Boyd Hill is another option with a disc golf course, picnic areas and even an outdoor swimming pool.

Spartanburg, SC

Spartanburg, SC

  • Population: 37,399
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,140
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,217
  • Median home price: $205,000
  • Median household income: $40,053
  • Walk score: 29/100

If South Carolina is calling to you for its mountain views, you’ll want to check out Spartanburg. With its small-town feel and neighborly vibe, living here still reminds you that you’re in the south but without the beach-front scenery the majority of the state provides.

A revitalized downtown is representative of the quick pace at which the city has grown over the last few years, and you’ll find diversity in job opportunities and living options as a result.

Tega Cay, SC

Tega Cay, SC

Source: Facebook.com/TegaCayCity
  • Population: 11,335
  • 1-BR median rent: $1,330
  • 2-BR median rent: $1,600
  • Median home price: $460,000
  • Median household income: $130,918
  • Walk score: 16/100

Another suburb of Charlotte, Tega Cay is a close-knit, lakeside community that fits most people’s ideal of small-town living. A family-friendly place, you’ll find plenty of restaurants and shops, as well as water sports on the lake.

Residents of Tega Cay also value the safety of the city. It’s the kind of place where kids are always out riding bikes and the community pool fills up with eager swimmers each summer. It’s almost like the suburban town you’d find in a movie.

Find an apartment for rent in South Carolina

Whether you want city living, ocean waves or even mountain tops, apartments for rent in South Carolina can provide the perfect view. With locations that accommodate any pace of life, alongside some delicious, fresh seafood, you’ll quickly see why there are so many places in the state people call the best.

The rent information included in this summary is based on a median calculation of multifamily rental property inventory on Apartment Guide and Rent.com as of October 2021.
Median home prices are from Redfin as of October 2021.
Population and median household income are from the U.S. Census Bureau.
The information in this article is for illustrative purposes only. This data herein does not constitute a pricing guarantee or financial advice related to the rental market.

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Source: apartmentguide.com

Virtual Asset Service Providers (VASP): What Are They?

We live in a world of service providers: health service providers, cloud service providers, internet service providers — the list goes on. And when we’re talking about cryptocurrency, virtual asset service providers (VASP) are inevitably part of the conversation.

Just what exactly is a VASP? And why should you know about them if you’re interested in cryptocurrency? This article will cover everything you need to know.

What are Virtual Assets (VAs)?

Most, if not all, cryptocurrencies and digital tokens are virtual assets. As outlined by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) , a virtual asset fits the following criteria:

•   It’s a digital store or representation of value.

•   It can be digitally traded or transacted, or used for payment or investment.

•   It doesn’t include a digital representation of fiat currency or securities.

Virtual assets that can be traded or exchanged require a medium upon which those trades can be executed. That’s where VASPs come into play.

What is a Virtual Asset Service Provider (VASP)?

A VASP is a platform used to buy, sell, exchange, or otherwise interact with the cryptocurrency market. In other words, VASPs are crypto exchanges — or, at least the framework and theory behind a digital currency exchange.

The acronym “VASP” was coined by the FATF, which is an intergovernmental, international body that shores up standards and regulations — or promotes the use of them — in an effort to curb money laundering and stop the financing of terrorism.

Given that different types of virtual currency can and may be used for illicit or illegal activities, the FATF is stepping in to create some rules and frameworks for entities in the crypto space to operate within. Just as many cryptocurrency platforms must abide by existing regulations and compliance protocols, they may also be subject to additional guidelines and scrutiny from the FATF.

What Makes VASPs Unique?

In order for an organization to be classified as a VASP, it must tick certain boxes. In guidance issued in June 2019, the FATF asserted that a VASP is a business that conducts at least one of the following activities:

•   Acts as an exchange for virtual assets or fiat currencies

•   Acts as an exchange between one or more types of virtual assets

•   Acts as a medium of transfer for virtual assets

•   Provides safekeeping or administration of instruments that allow entities to control virtual assets

•   Participates in or provides financial services related to an offer or sale of a virtual asset

What Are Some VASP Types?

The FATF guidelines clearly describe crypto exchanges, as well as other participants in the crypto markets, including:

•   Mining pools

•   Investment vehicles

•   Digital wallet providers

•   Companies offering escrow services (transferring digital assets between two parties, ensuring a transaction goes down smoothly). And yes, companies providing these services may be classified as VASPs, after the FATF expanded and clarified its definition of a VASP in.

In an early 2021 update , the FATF also stated that decentralized exchanges, decentralized platforms, and DApps may also be considered VASPs, as well as platforms that facilitate peer-to-peer crypto transactions.

Recommended: What is a dApp?

What Businesses are Not VASPs?

There are numerous types of crypto-related entities that are not VASPs, including but not limited to:

•   Individual crypto miners

•   Individuals participating in a Bitcoin mining pool

•   Individual traders

•   Central banks

In short, if you’re just a regular Joe who’s trading or otherwise participating in the crypto markets or validating a blockchain network, you’re not a VASP.

Other Key Terms to Know When Talking About VASPs

In order to get a full picture of VASPs, it’s important to understand a couple of other terms: Digital Asset Entity (DAE), and Digital Asset Customer (DAC).

The distinction between these specific types of entities — which may exist in more than one type of classification (an entity could be both a DAE and a VASP, for instance) — can have an impact on how the entity is regulated.

What is a Digital Asset Entity (DAE)?

A Digital Asset Entity refers to some of the various businesses and organizations in the digital transaction space. For example, a VASP is a DAE. But the DAE umbrella includes many other types of organizations, such as gambling platforms, that may not necessarily be labeled as traditional financial institutions.

What is a Digital Asset Customer (DAC)?

A Digital Asset Customer is an entity that makes use of the services of a DAE. You or anyone else can be a DAC, as you may utilize a financial institution’s services to engage with the cryptocurrency markets.

What Are Some Examples of VASPs?

There are several different types of businesses or platforms that can fit the description of a VASP, or that may take some role in the transaction process. Those can include centralized and decentralized exchanges, mining pools, investment vehicles, and more.

Here are some examples of companies or platforms that fit the description of a VASP:

•   Centralized exchange: These exchanges that act as a third party between crypto buyers and sellers. Examples include Coinbase and Kraken .

•   Decentralized exchange: These exchanges eliminate the need for a third-party middleman to execute trades or transactions. Examples include Uniswap and Venus .

•   Escrow service: There are also a lot of companies that provide escrow services (many exchanges offer the service, too) for digital asset transactions, such as Escaroo or Bitrated .

•   Investment vehicles: Crypto-tied investment vehicles, which may take the form of securities like crypto ETFs, are becoming more common and mainstream. One example: BITO , a Bitcoin-linked ETF that hit stock exchanges in October 2021.

The Takeaway

VASPs are businesses or companies that facilitate the exchange of virtual assets. Virtual assets can include things like cryptocurrency (Bitcoin, for example), non-fungible tokens (NFTs), or utility tokens (like Filecoin).

Had your fill of crypto-related acronyms? Ready to start investing in crypto? With SoFi Invest®, investors can trade more than two dozen cryptocurrencies, including Chainlink, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Dogecoin, Solana, Bitcoin, Litecoin, Cardano, and Enjin Coin.

Find out how to get started today.

Photo credit: iStock/Yuri_Arcurs


SoFi Invest®
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Source: sofi.com