How Do I Get the Best Interest Rate on a Loan?

Whether trying to consolidate debt with a personal loan or thinking about a loan to pay for a major life event, taking on debt is a financial move that warrants some consideration. It’s important to understand the financial commitment that taking on a personal loan — or any other debt — entails. This includes understanding interest rates you might qualify for, how a loan term affects the total interest charged, fees that might be charged by different lenders, and, finally, comparing offers you might receive.

Shopping around and comparing loans can increase your confidence that you’re getting the best interest rate on a loan.

What’s a Good Interest Rate on a Loan?

You may see advertisements for loan interest rates, but when you get around to checking your personal loan interest rate, what you’re offered may be different than rates you’ve seen. Why is that? A loan company may have interest rate ranges, but the lowest, most competitive rates may only be available to people who have excellent credit, as well as other factors.

When shopping around for a loan, it’s typical that when checking your rate, even with online personal loan companies, you can check your rate without affecting your credit score. This pre-qualification rate is just an estimate of the interest rate you would likely be offered if you were to apply for a loan, but it can give you a good estimate of what sort of rate you might be offered. You can compare rates to begin to filter potential companies to use to apply for a loan.

Recommended: Personal Loan Calculator

Getting a Favorable Interest Rate on a Loan

The potential interest rate on a loan depends on a few factors. These may include:

•   The amount of money borrowed.

•   The length of the loan.

•   The type of interest on your loan. Some loans may have variable interest (interest rates can fluctuate throughout the life of the loan) or a fixed interest rate. Typically, starting interest rates may be lower on a variable-rate loan.

•   Your credit score, which consists of several components.

•   Being a current customer of the company.

For example, your credit history, reflected in your credit score, can give a lender an idea of how much a risk you may be. Late payments, a high balance, or recently opened lines of credit or existing loans may make it seem like you could be a risky potential borrower.

If your credit score is not where you’d like it to be, it may make sense to take some time to focus on increasing your credit score. Some ways to do this are:

•   Analyzing your credit report and correcting any errors. If you haven’t checked your credit report, doing so before you apply for a loan is a good first step to making sure your credit information is correct. Then you’ll have a chance to correct any errors that may be bringing down your credit score.

•   Work on improving your credit score, if necessary. Making sure you pay bills on time and keeping your credit utilization ratio at a healthy level can help improve your credit score.

•   Minimize opening new accounts. Opening new accounts may temporarily decrease your credit score. If you’re planning to apply for a loan, it may be good to hold off on opening any new accounts for a few months leading up to your application.

•   Consider a cosigner or co-applicant for a loan. If you have someone close to you — a parent or a partner — with excellent credit, having a cosigner may make a loan application stronger. Keep in mind, though, that a cosigner will be responsible for the loan if the main borrower does not make payments.

Recommended: What is a Good APR?

Comparing Interest Rates on Personal Loans

When you compare loan options, it can be easy to focus exclusively on interest rates, choosing the company that may potentially offer you the lowest rate. But it can also be important to look at some other factors, including:

•   What are the fees? Some companies may charge fees such as origination fees or prepayment penalties. Before you commit to a loan, know what fees may be applicable so you won’t be surprised.

•   What sort of hardship terms do they have? Life happens, and it’s helpful to know if there are any alternative payment options if you were not able to make a payment during a month. It can be helpful to know in advance the steps one would take if they were experiencing financial hardship.

•   What is customer service like? If you have questions, how do you access the company?

•   Does your current bank offer “bundled” options? Current customers with active accounts may be offered lower personal loan interest rates than brand-new customers.

Recommended: Avoiding Loan Origination Fees

Choosing a Personal Loan For Your Financial Situation

Interest rates and terms aside, before you apply for a loan, it’s a good idea to understand how the loan will fit into your life and how you’ll budget for loan payments in the future. The best personal loan is one that feels like it can comfortably fit in your budget.

But it also may be a good idea to assess whether you need a personal loan, or whether there may be another financial option that fits your goals. For example:

•   Using a buy now, pay later service to cover the cost of a purchase. These services may offer 0% interest for a set amount of time.

•   Transferring high-interest credit card debt to a 0% or low-interest credit card, and making a plan to pay the balance before the end of the promotional rate.

•   Taking on a side hustle or decreasing monthly expenses to be able to cover the cost of a major purchase or renovation.

•   Researching other loan options, such as a home equity loan, depending on your needs.

Recommended: 39 Ways to Earn Passive Income Streams

The Takeaway

A loan is likely to play a big part in your financial life for months or years, so it’s important to take your time figuring out which loan option is right for you. And it’s also important to remember that interest rate is just one aspect of the loan. Paying attention to details like potential fees, hardship clauses, and other factors you may find in the small print may save you money and stress over time.

SoFi offers competitive unsecured personal loan options with fixed rates and no fees. Completing an easy online application will show what rate you qualify for — no commitment required and it won’t affect your credit score*.

Check your rate in just one minute.

Photo credit: iStock/Prostock-Studio


*Checking Your Rates: To check the rates and terms you may qualify for, SoFi conducts a soft credit pull that will not affect your credit score. A hard credit pull, which may impact your credit score, is required if you apply for a SoFi product after being pre-qualified.
SoFi Loan Products
SoFi loans are originated by SoFi Lending Corp. or an affiliate (dba SoFi), a lender licensed by the Department of Financial Protection and Innovation under the California Financing Law, license # 6054612; NMLS # 1121636 . For additional product-specific legal and licensing information, see SoFi.com/legal.

External Websites: The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.
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Source: sofi.com

Fixed Expense vs Variable Expense

Budgeting is the best way to get a better handle on where your money is going — which can help you get a better handle on where you’d like to see your money go.

But before you dive into the nitty-gritty of each individual line item on your ledger, you first need to understand the difference between fixed expenses and variable expenses.

As their name suggests, fixed expenses are those that are fixed, or unchanging, each month, while variable expenses are the ones with which you can expect a little more wiggle room. However, it’s possible to make cuts on items in both the fixed and variable expense category to save money toward bigger financial goals, whether that’s an epic vacation or your eventual retirement.

Let’s take a closer look.

What Is a Fixed Expense?

Fixed expenses are those costs that you pay in the same amount each month — items like your rent or mortgage payment, insurance premiums, and your gym membership. It’s all the stuff whose amounts you know ahead of time, and which don’t change.

Fixed expenses tend to make up a large percentage of a monthly budget since housing costs, typically the largest part of a household budget, are generally fixed expenses. This means that fixed expenses present a great opportunity for saving large amounts of money on a recurring basis if you can find ways to reduce their costs, though cutting costs on fixed expenses may require bigger life changes, like moving to a different apartment — or even a different city.

Keep in mind, too, that not all fixed expenses are necessities — or big budget line items. For example, an online TV streaming service subscription, which is withdrawn in the same amount every month, is a fixed expense, but it’s also a want as opposed to a need. Subscription services can seem affordable until they start accumulating and perhaps become unaffordable.

Recommended: Are Monthly Subscriptions Ruining Your Budget?

What Is a Variable Expense?

Variable expenses, on the other hand, are those whose amounts can vary each month, depending on factors like your personal choices and behaviors as well as external circumstances like the weather.
For example, in areas with cold winters, electricity or gas bills are likely to increase during the winter months because it takes more energy to keep a house comfortably warm. Grocery costs are also variable expenses since the amount you spend on groceries can vary considerably depending on what kind of items you purchase and how much you eat.

You’ll notice, though, that both of these examples of variable costs are still necessary expenses — basic utility costs and food. The amount of money you spend on other nonessential line items, like fashion or restaurant meals, is also a variable expense. In either case, variable simply means that it’s an expense that fluctuates on a month-to-month basis, as opposed to a fixed-cost bill you expect to see in the same amount each month.

To review:

•   Fixed expenses are those that cost the same amount each month, like rent or mortgage payments, insurance premiums, and subscription services.

•   Variable expenses are those that fluctuate on a month-to-month basis, like groceries, utilities, restaurant meals, and movie theater tickets.

•   Both fixed and variable utilities can be either wants or needs — you can have fixed-expense wants, like a gym membership, and variable-expense needs, like groceries.

When budgeting, it’s possible to make cuts on both fixed and variable expenses.

Recommended: Grocery Shopping on a Budget

Benefits of Saving Money on Fixed Expenses

If you’re trying to find ways to stash some cash, finding places in your budget to make cuts is a big key. And while you can make cuts on both fixed and variable expenses, lowering your fixed expenses can pack a hefty punch, since these tend to be big line items — and since the savings automatically replicate themselves each month when that bill comes due again. (Even businesses calculate the ratio of their fixed expenses to their variable expense, for this reason, yielding a measure known as operating leverage.)

Think about it this way: if you quit your morning latte habit (a variable expense), you might save a grand total of $150 over the course of a month — not too shabby, considering its just coffee. But if you recruit a roommate or move to a less trendy neighborhood, you might slash your rent (a fixed expense) in half. Those are big savings, and savings you don’t have to think about once you’ve made the adjustment: they just automatically rack up each month.

Other ways to save money on your fixed expenses include refinancing your car (or other debt) to see if you can qualify for a lower payment… or foregoing a car entirely in favor of a bicycle if your commute allows it. Can you pare down on those multiple streaming subscriptions or hit the road for a run instead of patronizing a gym? Even small savings can add up over time when they’re consistent and effort-free — it’s like automatic savings.

Of course, orchestrating it in the first place does take effort (and sometimes considerable effort, at that — pretty much no one names moving as their favorite activity). The benefits you might reap thereafter can make it all worthwhile, though.

Saving Money on Variable Expenses

Of course, as valuable as it is to make cuts to fixed expenses, saving money on variable expenses is still useful — and depending on your habits, it could be fairly easy to make significant slashes. For example, by adjusting your grocery shopping behaviors and aiming at fresh, bulk ingredients over-packaged convenience foods, you might decrease your monthly food bill. You could even get really serious and spend a few hours each weekend scoping out the weekly flyer for sales.

If you have a spendy habit like eating out regularly or shopping for clothes frequently, it can also be possible to find places to make cuts in your variable expenses. You can also find frugal alternatives for your favorite spendy activities, whether that means DIYing your biweekly manicure to learning to whip up that gourmet pizza at home. (Or maybe you’ll find a way to save enough on fixed expenses that you won’t have to worry as much about these habits!)

The Takeaway

Fixed expenses are those costs that are in the same amount each month, whereas variable expenses can vary. Both can be trimmed if you’re trying to save money in your budget, but cutting from fixed expenses can yield bigger savings for less ongoing effort.

Great budgeting starts with a great money management platform — and a SoFi Money® cash management account can give you a bird’s-eye view that puts everything into perspective. You’ll also have access to the Vaults feature, which helps you set aside money for specific savings purposes, no matter which goals are the most important to you, all in one account.

Check out SoFi Money and how it can help you manage your financial goals.

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Solo 401(k) vs SEP IRA: Key Differences and Considerations

Self-employment has its perks but an employer-sponsored retirement plan isn’t one of them. Opening a solo 401(k) or a Simplified Employee Pension Individual Retirement Account (SEP IRA) allows the self-employed to build wealth for retirement while enjoying some tax advantages.

A solo 401(k) or one-participant 401(k) is similar to a traditional 401(k), in terms of annual contribution limits and tax treatment. A SEP IRA, meanwhile, follows the same tax rules as traditional IRAs. SEP IRAs, however, allow a higher annual contribution limit than a regular IRA.

So, which is better for you? The answer can depend largely on whether your business has employees or operates as a sole proprietorship and which plan yields more benefits, in terms of contribution limits and tax breaks.

Weighing the features of a solo 401(k) vs. SEP IRA can make it easier to decide which one is more suited to your retirement savings needs.

Investing for Your Retirement When Self-Employed

An important part of planning for your retirement is understanding your long-term goals. Whether you choose to open a solo 401(k) or make SEP IRA contributions can depend on how much you need and want to save for retirement and what kind of tax advantages you hope to enjoy along the way.

Recommended: When Can I Retire? This Formula Will Help You Know

A solo 401(k) could allow you to save more for retirement on a tax-advantaged basis compared to a SEP IRA, but not everyone can contribute to one. It’s also important to consider whether you need to give some thought to retirement planning for employees.

If you’re hoping to mirror or replicate the traditional 401(k) plan experience, then you might lean toward a solo 401(k). Whether you can contribute to one of these plans depends on your business structure. Business owners with no employees or whose only employee is their spouse can use a solo 401(k).

Meanwhile, you can establish a SEP IRA for yourself as the owner of a business as well as your eligible employees, if you have any. It’s also helpful to think about what kind of investment options you might prefer. What you can invest in through a solo 401(k) plan may be different from what a SEP IRA offers, which can affect how you grow wealth for retirement.

Solo 401(k) vs SEP IRA Comparisons

Both solo 401(k) plans and SEP IRAs make it possible to save for retirement as a self-employed person or business owner when you don’t have access to an employer’s 401(k). You can set up either type of account if you operate as a sole proprietorship and have no employees. And both can offer a tax break if you’re able to deduct contributions each year.

In terms of differences, there are some things that set solo 401(k) plans apart from SEP IRAs. Under SEP IRA rules, for instance, neither employee nor catch-up contributions are allowed. There’s no Roth option with a SEP IRA, which you may have with a solo 401(k). Choosing a Roth solo 401(k) might appeal to you if you’d like to be able to make tax-free withdrawals in retirement.

You may also be able to take a loan from a solo 401(k) if the plan permits it. Solo 401(k) loans follow the same rules as traditional 401(k) loans. If you need to take money from a SEP IRA before age 59 ½, however, you may pay an early withdrawal penalty and owe income tax on the withdrawal.

Here’s a rundown of the main differences between a 401(k) vs. SEP IRA.

Solo 401(k) SEP IRA
Tax-Deductible Contributions Yes, for traditional solo 401(k) plans Yes
Employer Contributions Allowed Yes Yes
Employee Contributions Allowed Yes Yes
Withdrawals Taxed in Retirement Yes, for traditional solo 401(k) plans Yes
Roth Contributions Allowed Yes No
Catch-Up Contributions Allowed Yes No
Loans Allowed Yes No

What Is a Solo 401(k)?

A solo 401(k) or one-participant 401(k) plan is a traditional 401(k) that covers a business owner who has no employees or employs only their spouse. Simply, a Solo 401(k) allows you to save money for retirement from your self-employment or business income on a tax-advantaged basis.

These plans follow the same IRS rules and requirements as any other 401(k). There are specific solo 401(k) contribution limits to follow, along with rules regarding withdrawals and taxation. Regulations also govern when you can take a loan from a solo 401(k) plan.

A number of online brokerages now offer solo 401(k) plans for self-employed individuals, including those who freelance or perform gig work. You can open a retirement account online and start investing, no employer other than yourself needed.

If you use a solo 401(k) to save for retirement, you’ll also need to follow some reporting requirements. Generally, the IRS requires solo 401(k) plan owners to file a Form 5500-EZ if it has $250,000 or more in assets at the end of the year.

Solo 401(k) Contribution Limits

Just like other 401(k) plans, solo 401(k)s have annual contribution limits. You can make contributions as both an employee and an employer. Here’s how annual solo 401(k) contribution limits work for elective deferrals:

Solo 401(k) Contribution Limits by Age in 2021 (Elective Deferrals) Annual contribution in 2022
Annual Contribution Catch-Up Contribution in 2021 and 2022
Under 50 $19,500 N/a N/a
50 and Older $19,500 $6,500 $20,500

The limit on 401(k) contributions, including elective deferrals and employer nonelective contributions, is $58,000 for 2021 and $61,000 in 2022. That doesn’t include an additional $6,500 allowed for catch-up contributions if you’re 50 or older.

If you’re self-employed, the IRS requires you to make a special calculation to figure out the maximum amount of elective deferrals and employer nonelective contributions you can make for yourself. This calculation reflects on your earned income, or means your net earnings from self-employment after deducting one-half of your self-employment tax and contributions for yourself.

The IRS offers a rate table you can use to calculate your contributions. You can set up automatic deferrals to a solo 401(k), or make contributions at any point throughout the year.

What Is a SEP IRA?

A SEP IRA or Simplified Employee Pension Plan is another option to consider if you’re looking for retirement plans for those self-employed. This tax-advantaged plan is available to any size business, including sole proprietorships with no employees, and its one of the easiest retirement plan to set up and maintain. So if you’re a freelancer or a gig worker, you might consider using a SEP IRA to plan for retirement.

SEP IRAs work much like traditional IRAs, with regard to the tax treatment of withdrawals. They do, however, allow you to contribute more money toward retirement each year above the standard traditional IRA contribution limit. That means you could enjoy a bigger tax break when it’s time to deduct contributions.

If you have employees, you can make retirement plan contributions to a SEP IRA on their behalf. SEP IRA contribution limits are, for the most part, the same for both employers and employees. If you’re interested in a SEP, you can set up an IRA for yourself or for yourself and your employees through an online brokerage.

SEP IRA Contributions

SEP IRA contributions use pre-tax dollars. Amounts contributed are tax-deductible in the year you make them. All contributions are made by the employer only, which is something to remember if you have employees. Unlike a traditional 401(k) that allows elective deferrals, your employees wouldn’t be able to add money to their SEP IRA through paycheck deductions.

Here’s how SEP IRA contributions work.

SEP IRA Contributions by Age

Annual Contribution Catch-Up Contribution
Under 50 Lesser of 25% of the employee’s compensation or $58,000 in 2021 and $61,000 in 2022. N/a
50 and Older Lesser of 25% of the employee’s compensation or $58,000 and $61,000 in 2022. N/a

The IRS doesn’t allow catch-up contributions to a SEP IRA, a significant difference from solo 401(k) plans. So it’s possible you could potentially save more for retirement with a solo 401(k), depending on your age and earnings. If you’re self-employed, you’ll need to follow the same IRS rules for figuring your annual contributions that apply to solo 401(k) plans.

You can make SEP IRA contributions at any time until your taxes are due, in mid-April of the following year.

The Takeaway

Saving for retirement is something that you can’t afford to put off. Whether you choose a solo 401(k), SEP IRA or another savings plan, it’s important to take the first step toward growing wealth.

If you’re ready to start saving for the future, one way to get started is by opening a brokerage account on the SoFi Invest investment platform. All members get complimentary access to a financial advisor, which can help you create a plan to meet your long-term goals.

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SoFi Invest®
The information provided is not meant to provide investment or financial advice. Investment decisions should be based on an individual’s specific financial needs, goals and risk profile. SoFi can’t guarantee future financial performance. Advisory services offered through SoFi Wealth, LLC. SoFi Securities, LLC, member FINRA / SIPC . SoFi Invest refers to the three investment and trading platforms operated by Social Finance, Inc. and its affiliates (described below). Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of the platforms below.
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What Is IPO Due Diligence?

An Initial Public Offering, or IPO, represents the first time a private company makes its shares available for trade on a public stock exchange. As part of the IPO process, private companies must perform due diligence to ensure that they’ve met all the requirements for going public. This ensures that the company follows all registration and disclosure guidelines established by the Securities Act of 1933.

Broadly speaking, IPO due diligence is similar to the due diligence performed in any other situation involving large amounts of capital. Just as an investor may research certain aspects of a company before deciding to purchase shares, a company that’s planning an IPO must have an understanding of the various factors that could positively or negatively affect its success.

If you’re interested in investing in IPOs, it’s helpful to know what goes on behind the scenes and how the IPO due diligence process works.

Recommended: How to Buy IPO Stocks

IPO Due Diligence Process

IPO due diligence typically takes place within the first 60 days of a company beginning the IPO process. During the IPO due diligence process, the IPO underwriters and IPO attorneys will work together to perform the necessary background research to gain a better understanding of the company, its management and its financials. This involves gathering the follow information:

1. Organizational Data

During the first stage of the IPO due diligence process, the underwriters and attorneys gather information about the company’s organizational structure. This may include requesting copies of any or all of the following:

•   Articles of incorporation

•   A list of the company’s shareholders and committees

•   An overview of the number of shares owned per individual shareholder

•   Annual business reports for the previous three years

•   Company business plans or strategic plans

•   A breakdown of the company’s organizational structure, including board members, directors, and employees

The underwriting team may also request a copy of a certificate in good standing from the State Secretary, along with information on organizational decision-making.

2. Licensing and Taxation

The next step in IPO due diligence involves collecting information about the company’s licensing and taxes. At this stage, the IPO underwriter and/or attorneys may request copies of:

•   All business licenses currently issued to the company

•   Annual tax returns

•   Government licenses and permits held by the company

•   Employment tax filings

•   Comprehensive reports of the company’s tax filing data

The underwriting team may look back three years or more when analyzing income tax returns and tax filing information.

3. Board and Employee Information

Due diligence can also extend to information about the company’s board of directors, its managers, and its employees. At this phase of IPO due diligence, underwriters and attorney may request:

•   A list of all individuals it employees

•   Information about employee status, including each employee’s position and salary

•   Details regarding employee benefits and bonuses, according to position

•   A copy of company policies relating to sick leave or conflict resolution

•   Details about employee insurance benefits, including health, disability and life insurance

•   Copies of resumes for leading personnel

•   Copies of employee audits

With regard to employee audits, underwriters can look back two to three years.

4. Financial Information

A company’s finances can come under close scrutiny during the IPO due diligence process. When considering financial information, the IPO underwriting and legal team may review:

•   Copies of broker or investment banking arrangements

•   Company financial statements records, including previous financial audits

•   A list of all financial accounts help by the company

•   Copies of financial analyst reports

•   Information about the company’s inventory holdings

•   Details regarding the company’s accounting and amortization methods

•   A list of all fixed and variable expenses

The time frame for which underwriters can review financial information can stretch from the previous three to five years, depending on what they’re examining.

Recommended: How to Read Financial Statements

5. Customer/Service Information

Due diligence also takes into account interactions with customers and service practices. During this step, the underwriting team may request:

•   Reports or information about the products and services offered by the company

•   Details about consumer complaints filed against the company

•   Information about legal approvals for the company’s products and services

•   Copies of the company’s trading policies

•   Details regarding the company’s marketing strategies as well as copies of marketing materials

The underwriters may also need to see copies of customer supply or service agreements.

6. Company Property

Last but not least, IPO underwriters will examine property holdings owned by the company. This can include reviewing information about:

•   Business locations

•   Real estate agreements and/or franchise licenses

•   Trademarks and copyrights held by the company

•   Approved patents held by the company

•   Trademark complaints, if applicable

•   Official contracts showing the purchase of real estate

The underwriters may also ask for a full inventory of any physical or real property the company owns.

Objective of IPO Due Diligence

During due diligence, the underwriting team is working to gain a full understanding of how the company operates, how it’s structured, how healthy it is financially, and whether there are any potential issues that could be a roadblock to going public. The due diligence process effectively clears the way for the next steps in the IPO process.

The IPO due diligence process ensures that there are no surprises waiting to crop up that could derail a company’s progress. It’s also an opportunity for the underwriting team, the IPO attorneys and the company itself to assess any potential risk factors that may affect the IPO’s outcome.

Benefits of Due Diligence Process

IPO due diligence has benefits for both the company and investors.

IPO Due Diligence Benefits to the Company

•   Due diligence offers an opportunity to explore the viability of an IPO, based on the company’s business model, financials, capital needs and anticipated demand for its shares.

•   Due diligence also allows the company to avoid going afoul of regulatory guidelines, and it can help to identify any issues the company may need to address before going public.

IPO Due Diligence Benefits to Investors

•   The due diligence process can reveal more about a company than the information in the initial red herring prospectus. In IPO investing, a red herring refers to the initial prospectus compiled for SEC registration purposes.

•   If investors feel confident about the information they have, that could help to fuel the success of the IPO which can mean more capital raised for the company and better returns for those who purchase its shares.

Next Steps in Filing IPO

Once the underwriting team has completed its due diligence, the company can move on to the next steps involved in how to file an Initial Public Offering (IPO). Again, that includes:

•   SEC review

•   IPO roadshow

•   Pricing

•   Launch

•   Stabilization

•   Transition to market

The SEC review typically takes between 90 and 150 days to complete. Now, it’s up to the SEC to determine that all regulatory requirements have been met. Usually, the team conducting the review includes one or more attorneys and one or more accountants.

Next, comes the roadshow. During the roadshow, the company presents details about the IPO to potential investors. This step of the IPO process allows the company and underwriters to gauge interest in the offering and attract investors.

IPO pricing usually involves a closer look at the company’s financials, including its valuation and cash flow. Underwriters may also consider valuations for similar competitors when determining the appropriate IPO price.

After setting the IPO price, the underwriters and the company will schedule the IPO launch. Once the IPO launches, investors can purchase shares of the company. The underwriter does the steering on price stabilization movements during the 25 days following the launch, after which the company transitions to market competition, concluding the IPO process.

The Takeaway

IPO due diligence is an important part of the IPO process. Thanks to due diligence, investors who want to purchase IPO stock can feel confident that a company about to go public complies with all relevant SEC regulations.

If you’re interested in purchasing IPO stock, it’s easier than you might think to gain access to newly-launched companies. With a brokerage account on the SoFi Invest investment app, members can invest in IPOs.

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SoFi Invest®
The information provided is not meant to provide investment or financial advice. Investment decisions should be based on an individual’s specific financial needs, goals and risk profile. SoFi can’t guarantee future financial performance. Advisory services offered through SoFi Wealth, LLC. SoFi Securities, LLC, member FINRA / SIPC . SoFi Invest refers to the three investment and trading platforms operated by Social Finance, Inc. and its affiliates (described below). Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of the platforms below.
1) Automated Investing—The Automated Investing platform is owned by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC Registered Investment Advisor (“Sofi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC, an affiliated SEC registered broker dealer and member FINRA/SIPC, (“Sofi Securities).

2) Active Investing—The Active Investing platform is owned by SoFi Securities LLC. Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.

3) Cryptocurrency is offered by SoFi Digital Assets, LLC, a FinCEN registered Money Service Business.

For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above, including state licensure of Sofi Digital Assets, LLC, please visit www.sofi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform. Information related to lending products contained herein should not be construed as an offer or pre-qualification for any loan product offered by SoFi Lending Corp and/or its affiliates.
IPOs: Investing early in IPO stock involves substantial risk of loss. The decision to invest should always be made as part of a comprehensive financial plan taking individual circumstances and risk appetites into account.
SOIN1021434

Source: sofi.com

Seeking Alpha Review – Is the Premium Subscription Worth It?

At a glance

Seeking Alpha Logo

Our rating

  • What It Is: Seeking Alpha is a stock market news and research website that produces more than 10,000 articles per month, designed to give readers investment ideas and tools for evaluating different investments.
  • Membership Fees: Basic, Free; Premium, $29.99 per month or $239.88 annually ($19.99 per month); Pro, $299 per month or $2,388 annually ($199 per month).
  • Pros: Detailed research and opinions from bears and bulls, proprietary rating systems, intuitive stock screener, portfolio monitoring, earnings calls and transcripts, and notable calls from Wall Street experts.
  • Cons: Relatively high monthly fee, many of the premium features can be found free elsewhere, few tools for technical traders, and the vast amount of information can overwhelm newcomers.

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Dig Deeper

Additional Resources

Everything you read when it comes to learning how to invest tells you that research is the foundation of profitable investment choices. One of the best research tools for the fundamental investor is found at SeekingAlpha.com.

Seeking Alpha is an investment research service fueled by more than 7,000 contributors who produce more than 10,000 articles per month, with each having a unique stance on the topics they cover. Investors can benefit quite a bit from the company’s free services, but if you’re willing to pay for the premium service, even more tools are unlocked.

What Is Seeking Alpha?

At its core, Seeking Alpha is a crowdsourcing website that sources valuable investment research through a vast consortium of contributors. Seeking Alpha was designed for individual investors who are interested in choosing individual stocks. 

The vast majority of the content on the website is available for free for the first 10 days after publication. However, if you’re interested in in-depth research, stock screening tools, and proprietary rating systems, you’ll need to sign up for one of the company’s subscription services.


Pricing

There are three different pricing models available.

  1. Basic. The Basic subscription is absolutely free. With this subscription, you’ll gain access to free articles for the first 10 days after their publication as well as some portfolio management tools. For most casual investors who aren’t interested in diving deep into research and fundamental analysis, the Basic subscription is a great fit. 
  2. Premium. The Premium service unlocks all articles on the website regardless of their age. Premium members also get access to a customized news platform, an intuitive stock screener, proprietary Quant ratings, unlimited conference call transcripts, earnings call audio, and exclusive author ratings. In exchange, members agree to pay $29.99 per month or $239.88 paid annually ($19.99 per month). You can also try before you buy with the company’s 14-day free trial. 
  3. Pro. The Pro service comes with a price tag that will turn off most mom-and-pop investors at $299 per month or $2,388 paid annually ($199 per month). Designed for investors who manage large portfolios, the Pro service offers a curated collection of the most in-depth research offered through the platform. 

Key Features

As a research-centric service, the vast majority of key features offered by Seeking Alpha have to do with getting to know the companies you invest in before risking your hard-earned money on them. Some of the most exciting features you’ll gain access to when you sign up include:

Thorough Investment Research

With more than 7,000 contributors offering up more than 10,000 articles per month, you’ll have everything you need to research just about any publicly traded company and make a quality investment decision.

The vast majority of these articles are labeled as investment ideas that fall into one of the following categories:

  • Long Ideas. Long ideas are investment ideas centered around stocks that the authors believe will head up in value in the long term. 
  • IPO Analysis. Initial public offerings, or IPOs, are a hot topic among investors, and tools that help determine whether an IPO is priced fairly and has strong potential to grow in value are invaluable. The IPO analysis offered by Seeking Alpha is one of the best ways to go about analyzing an IPO trade.
  • Quick Picks. Quick picks are articles centered around stocks based on a specific investment theme or fundamental data. 
  • Fund Letters. Fund letters is a curated list of select letters from professionally managed funds to their investors outlining the investing landscape and their goals moving forward. 
  • Editor’s Picks. Editor’s picks are articles that are hand-selected by the editors at Seeking Alpha based on in-depth research, the author’s track record, and other factors.  
  • Stock Ideas by Sector. The Stock Ideas by Sector section of the Seeking Alpha website lets you quickly scan through any sector of the market. 

Beyond the basic search functions of the website and access to all articles regardless of how old they are, Premium members also enjoy a customizable news dashboard that displays articles on stocks and investment strategies they’re interested in first, making combing through the vast sea of content on SeekingAlpha.com far easier. 

Note that although investment ideas are shared on the company’s website, nothing on the site constitutes investment advice. The author couldn’t possibly know your unique goals, financial capabilities, risk tolerance, and other factors that make you, well, you. The platform is designed as a research tool. You should never blindly make an investment just because the title of an article on the platform suggests big gains are ahead. 

Article Sidebar

The article sidebar is a feature that’s only available to Seeking Alpha Premium subscribers, but it alone is worth the subscription fee for many investors. 

When making investment decisions based on what you read online, it’s important to validate the source of the research and ensure the author and the stock are worth following in the first place. The Article Sidebar makes this simple to do at a glance by offering a brief bullish and bearish synopsis of the stock, stock ratings from the authors on the platform, a real-time stock price chart, and ratings for the author who contributed the piece.

Quant Ratings

Technology and computerized trading algorithms have reshaped the investing industry. Today, the market is more active than ever before, and algorithms provide a trove of data on the potential of any investment. 

However, the details offered up by these algorithms are often difficult to understand, and therefore often are ignored by novice investors. 

The good news is that Seeking Alpha offers its readers quant ratings, which algorithmically rate stocks in an easy-to-understand way. These ratings are based on five key factors: value, growth, profitability, EPS revisions, and momentum.

Factor Scorecards

Factor investing has become a popular concept. The idea is that by investing in stocks that come with risk premiums like small-cap, value, growth, and other characteristics, you’ll be able to beat the average market performance in your portfolio. 

When analyzing these factors, Seeking Alpha offers an easy-to-understand score ranging from A+ to F.

  • REIT Scorecard: On scorecards for real estate investment trusts (REITs), Seeking Alpha provides scores based on funds from operations as well as adjusted funds from operations. 
  • Dividend Stock Scorecard: Dividend stocks are a great way to generate income through your investments. The Dividend Stock Scorecard takes various factors into account, considering not only whether the stock pays competitive dividends, but also whether those dividends are sustainable. 

Earnings Call Transcripts & Recordings

Earnings reports are some of the most important events in the stock market. Every quarter, publicly traded companies are required to provide updated financial information, letting investors in on the financial stability and growth prospects for the company. 

Basic members have access to earnings call transcripts, but if you want to listen to the recorded calls, you’ll need to upgrade to a Premium subscription. 

Earnings Estimates & Surprises

Basic members have access to past earnings data from the company’s they’re interested in as well as information on dividends. 

For premium members, the data becomes a bit more intuitive, offering analyst forecasts and earnings surprises, which show the extent to which the company beat or missed earnings expectations in recent quarters. 

Notable Calls

Across Wall Street, there are tons of investment grade funds and investing professionals that manage money for individual investors. These fund managers often provide quarterly letters to their investors outlining the state of the market and how they plan on capitalizing on it in the future. 

The Notable Calls section of the website, only accessible by Premium and Pro members, is a curated list of these quarterly announcements from some of the most well-respected hedge funds and investment-grade funds. 

Intuitive Stock Screener

Stock screeners make it easy to find the types of opportunities you’re looking for in the stock market. It seems as though every investing-centric website offers one. However, the screener offered by Seeking Alpha is one of the best in the business. 

As with any stock screener, you’ll be able to screen opportunities by volume, sector, stock price, and more. However, what’s unique about the Seeking Alpha screener is that it lets you screen stocks based on the company’s proprietary Quant Ratings and Factor Scores. 

So, if you’re looking for a technology stock that has both a high Quant Rating and Factor Score and is experiencing exceptionally high volume, you won’t have any issues digging an opportunity up. 

Personalized Alerts

Personalized alerts are available to all Seeking Alpha subscribers. These alerts come via email, informing you of any news and analyst upgrades or downgrades of the stocks you’re interested in. 

While the service is available to all users, Premium members get all the data in the email they receive, while Basic members must click to the Seeking Alpha website to see the full information associated with the alert. 

Portfolio Monitoring

Investors are able to connect their live investment portfolios to Seeking Alpha and monitor their holdings through the platform. Through the portfolio monitoring service, you’ll be able to track your portfolio and pinpoint the investments that are doing best and worst for you. 

Moreover, when you attach your portfolio, you’ll receive alerts when news and opinion articles are published around a ticker you invest in. Premium members enjoy faster time-to-delivery, ensuring you’re one of the first to see the news on stocks you invest in. 


Advantages

Seeking Alpha is one of the most successful investing-centric websites online today, and that popularity didn’t just happen out of the blue. There are several benefits to taking advantage of the services provided by the company, the most significant being:

1. Investing Ideas

Finding quality investment opportunities is arguably one of the most difficult parts of the investing process. Seeking Alpha is essentially a curated list of the best investment ideas produced by thousands of authors. 

Considering the sheer scale of content produced, you’ll be able to find quality ideas no matter whether your preferred style of investing is growth, value, or income.  

2. Free Services

For many investors, the content available under the Basic membership will provide everything you need to make wise decisions in the stock market.  

3. Proprietary Scores

The proprietary scoring system used by the company to provide at-a-glance information about stocks is second to none. Not only does the company take general fundamental data into account when creating these scores, it adds in a risk premium factor that’s difficult to find elsewhere.

4. Portfolio Monitoring

When managing your own self-directed investment portfolio, monitoring your performance in the market is key. The company makes this simple for both free and paid users, including email alerts when important news is released about a stock you’ve invested in.  


Disadvantages

Sure, there are plenty of reasons to consider signing up for this service. However, as with any rose, there are some thorns to be mindful of before grabbing a fistful and taking a whiff:

1. Not the Best Option for Technical Traders

If you’re a swing trader or day trader who relies heavily on technical analysis, you won’t find much value in the service. The company’s core focus is on providing fundamental data and research, and it leaves most technical data to companies that focus on providing that type of information. 

2. Many Features Are Found Elsewhere Free

While the company does make it easy to access tools in one space, much of what it provides can be found elsewhere for free. For example, there are tons of websites that publish free opinion articles on stocks, and a simple search on Google will provide a list of articles on the stocks you’re interested in. 

Moreover, stock screeners, portfolio monitoring services, and earnings data are all widely available for free online. However, it is worth mentioning that most free services don’t go as far in depth as the tools available at Seeking Alpha. 

3. It’s Expensive

Sure, $29.99 per month doesn’t sound like much, but if you have a beginner investment portfolio that consists of $1,000 in stocks, you’ll have to earn a return of nearly 3% per month just to cover the cost of the service. As such, the Premium service is most worthwhile for investors who have a portfolio value of at least $10,000. 

4. No Buy Recommendations

Seeking Alpha is not an alert service. In fact, the disclaimer on all articles on the website suggest that investors should make their own decisions. There are plenty of services with similar pricing that actually offer alerts, recommending when investors should buy or sell stocks. If you’re looking for an alert service that does so, you’ll have to look elsewhere.  


Final Word

All in all, Seeking Alpha is a great tool for the fundamental investor who takes the time to research what they’re buying before diving into a stock. With so many authors and articles on the platform, investors are able to see stocks they’re interested in from multiple points of view, helping to avoid investing based on a few skewed opinions. 

Moreover, Seeking Alpha is a great add-on service to those who use the Motley Fool Stock Advisor, which gives two trade ideas per month. By cross-referencing the ideas provided through the Motley Fool or another alert service with the in-depth research Seeking Alpha provides, you’ll be able to form educated opinions about whether the recommendations are worth following. 

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The Verdict

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Our rating

Seeking Alpha is a valuable research tool for the fundamental investor. While it doesn’t offer much for technical traders and has a relatively high premium membership fee (starting at $29.99 per month), it is a great option for active investors looking to add detailed research to their repertoire of tools.

While there are plenty of benefits for paying subscribers, the service is relatively expensive compared to its competitors, and some premium features can be found elsewhere for free. However, active fundamental investors will benefit greatly from the detailed research and proprietary scoring system Seeking Alpha offers.

Editorial Note:
The editorial content on this page is not provided by any bank, credit card issuer, airline, or hotel chain, and has not been reviewed, approved, or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities. Opinions expressed here are the author’s alone, not those of the bank, credit card issuer, airline, or hotel chain, and have not been reviewed, approved, or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

Source: moneycrashers.com

The Ultimate List of Financial Ratios

Financial ratios are numerical calculations that illustrate the relationship between one piece or group of data and another. Business owners use financial statement ratios to performance, assess risk and guide decision-making. For investors, these calculations can provide meaningful data that reflects a company’s liquidity and financial health.

The use of financial ratios is often central to a quantitative or fundamental analysis approach, though they can also be used for technical analysis. For example, a value investor may use certain types of financial ratios to indicate whether the market has undervalued a company or how much potential its stock has for long-term price appreciation. Meanwhile, a trend trader may check key financial ratios to determine if a current pricing trend is likely to hold.

With either strategy, informed investors must understand the different kinds of commonly used financial ratios, and how to interpret them.

What Are Financial Ratios?

A financial ratio is a means of expressing the relationship between two pieces of numerical data. When discussing ratios in a business or investment setting, you’re typically talking about information that’s included in a company’s financial statements.

Recommended: How to Read Financial Statements

Financial ratios can provide insight into a company, in terms of things like valuation, revenues, and profitability. They can also aid in comparing two companies.

For example, say you’re considering investing in the tech sector, and you are evaluating two potential companies. One has a share price of $10 while the other has a share price of $55. Basing your decision solely on price alone could be a mistake if you don’t understand what’s driving share prices or how the market values each company. That’s where financial ratios become useful for understanding a company’s inner workings.

Key Financial Ratios

Investors tend to use some financial ratios more often or place more significance on certain ratios when evaluating business or companies. Here are some of the most important financial ratios to know.

1. Earnings Per Share (EPS)

Earnings per share or EPS measures earnings and profitability. This metric can tell you how likely a company is to generate profits for its investors. A higher EPS typically indicates better profitability, though this rule works best when making apples-to-apples comparisons for companies within the same industry.

EPS Formula:

EPS = Net profit / Number of common shares

To find net profit, you’d subtract total expenses from total revenue. (Investors might also refer to net profit as net income.)

EPS Example:

So, assume a company has a net profit of $2 million, with 12,000,000 shares outstanding. Following the EPS formula, the earnings per share works out to $0.166.

2. Price-to-Earnings (P/E)

Price-to-earnings ratio or P/E helps investors determine whether a company’s stock price is low or high compared to other companies or to its own past performance. More specifically, the price-to-earnings ratio can give you a sense of how expensive a stock is relative to its competitors, or how the stock’s price is trending over time.

P/E Formula:

P/E = Current stock price / Current earnings per share

P/E Example:

Here’s how it works: A company’s stock is trading at $50 per share. Its EPS for the past 12 months averaged $5. The price-to-earnings ratio works out to 10, meaning investors would have to spend $10 for every dollar generated in annual earnings.

3. Debt to Equity (D/E)

Debt to equity or D/E is a leverage ratio. This ratio tells investors how much debt a company has in relation to how much equity it holds.

D/E Formula:

D/E = Total liabilities / Shareholders equity

In this formula, liabilities represent money the company owes. Equity represents assets minus liabilities or the company’s book value.

D/E Example:

So, say a company has $5 million in debt and $10 million in shareholder equity. Its debt-to-equity ratio would be 0.5. As a general rule, a lower debt to equity ratio is better as it means the company has fewer debt obligations.

4. Return on Equity (ROE)

Return on equity or ROE is another financial ratio that’s used to measure profitability. In simple terms, it’s used to illustrate the return on shareholder equity based on how a company spends its money.

ROE Formula:

ROE = Net income – Preferred dividends / Value of average common equity

ROE Example:

Assume a company has net income of $2 million and pays out preferred dividends of $200,000. The total value of common equity is $10 million. Using the formula, return on equity would equal 0.18 or 18%. A higher ROE means the company generates more profits.

Liquidity Ratios

Liquidity ratios can give you an idea of how easily a company can pay its debts and other liabilities. In other words, liquidity ratios indicate cash flow strength. That can be especially important when considering newer companies, which may face more significant cash flow challenges compared to established companies.

5. Current Ratio

Also known as the working-capital ratio, the current ratio tells you how likely a company is able to meet its financial obligations for the next 12 months. You might check this ratio if you’re interested in whether a company has enough assets to pay off short-term liabilities.

Formula:

Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities

Example:

So, say a company has $1 million in current assets and $500,000 in current liabilities. It has a current ratio of 2, meaning for every $1 a company has in current liabilities it has $2 in current assets.

6. Quick Ratio

The quick ratio, also called the acid-test ratio, measures liquidity based on assets and liabilities. But it deducts the value of inventory from these calculations.

Formula:

Quick Ratio = Current Assets – Inventory / Current Liabilities

Example:

Quick ratio is also useful for determining how easily a company can pay its debts. For example, say a company has current assets of $5 million, inventory of $1 million and current liabilities of $500,000. Its quick ratio would be 8, so for every $1 in liabilities the company has $8 in assets.

7. Cash Ratio

A cash ratio tells you how much cash a company has on hand, relative to its total liabilities. So in other words, it tells you how easily a company could pay its liabilities with cash.

Formula:

Cash Ratio = (Cash + Cash Equivalents) / Total Current Liabilities

Example:

So a company that has $100,000 in cash and $500,000 in current liabilities would have a cash ratio of 0.2. That means it has enough cash on hand to pay 20% of its current liabilities.

8. Operating Cash Flow Ratio

Operating cash flow can tell you how much cash flow a business generates in a given time frame. This financial ratio is useful for determining how much cash a business has on hand at any given time that it can use to pay off its liabilities.

To calculate the operating cash flow ratio you’ll first need to determine its operating cash flow:

Operating Cash Flow = Net Income + Changes in Assets & Liabilities + Non-cash Expenses – Increase in Working Capital

Then, you calculate the cash flow ratio using this formula:

Formula:

Operating Cash Flow Ratio = Operating Cash Flow / Current Liabilities

Example:

So for example, if a company has an operating cash flow of $1 million and current liabilities of $250,000, you could calculate that it has an operating cash flow ratio of 4, which means it has $4 in operating cash flow for every $1 of liabilities.

Solvency Ratios

Solvency ratios are financial ratios used to measure a company’s ability to pay its debts over the long term. As an investor, you might be interested in solvency ratios if you think a company may have too much debt or be a potential candidate for a bankruptcy filing. Solvency ratios can also be referred to as leverage ratios.

Debt to equity is a key financial ratio used to measure solvency, though there are other leverage ratios that are helpful as well.

9. Debt Ratio

A company’s debt ratio measures the relationship between its debts and its assets. So you might use a debt ratio to gauge whether a company could pay off its debts with the assets it has currently.

Formula:

Debt Ratio = Total Liabilities / Total Assets

Example:

The lower this number is the better in terms of risk. A lower debt ratio means a company has less relative debt. So a company that has $25,000 in debt and $100,000 in assets, for example, would have a debt ratio of 0.25. Investors typically consider anything below 0.5 a lower risk.

10. Equity Ratio

Equity ratio is a measure of solvency based on assets and total equity. This ratio can tell you how much of the company is owned by investors and how much of it is leveraged by debt.

Formula:

Equity Ratio = Total Equity / Total Assets

Example:

Investors typically favor a higher equity ratio, as it means the company’s shareholders are more heavily invested and the business isn’t bogged down by debt. So, for example, a company with $200,000 in total equity and $200,000 in total assets has an equity ratio of 0.80. This tells you shareholders own 80% of the company.

Profitability Ratios

Profitability ratios gauge a company’s ability to generate income from sales, balance sheet assets, operations and shareholder’s equity. In other words, how likely is the company to be able to turn a profit?

Return on equity is one profitability ratio investors can use. You can also try these financial ratios for estimating profitability.

11. Gross Margin Ratio

Gross margin ratio compares a company’s gross margin to its net sales. This tells you how much profit a company makes from selling its goods and services after the cost of goods sold is factored in.

Formula:

Gross Margin Ratio = Gross Margin / Net Sales

Example

A company that has a gross margin of $250,000 and $1 million in net sales has a gross margin ratio of 25%. Meanwhile, a company with a $250,000 gross margin and $2 million in net sales has a gross margin ratio of 12.5% and realizes a smaller profit percentage per sale.

12. Operating-Margin Ratio

Operating-margin ratio measures how much total revenue is composed of operating income, or how much revenue a company has after its operating costs.

Formula:

Operating Margin Ratio = Operating Income / Net Sales

Example:

A higher operating-margin ratio suggests a more financially stable company with enough operating income to cover its operating costs. For example, if operating income is $250,000 and net sales are $500,000, that means 50 cents per dollar of sales goes toward variable costs.

13. Return on Assets Ratio

Return on assets or ROA measures net income produced by a company’s total assets. This lets you see how good a company is at using its assets to generate income.

Formula:

Return on Assets = Net Income / Average Total Assets

Example:

Investors typically favor a higher ratio as it shows that the company may be better at using its assets to generate income. For example, a company that has $10 million in net income and $2 million in average total assets generates $5 in income per $1 of assets.

Efficiency Ratios

Efficiency ratios or financial activity ratios give you a sense of how thoroughly a company is using the assets and resources it has on hand. In other words, they can tell you if a company is using its assets efficiently or not.

14. Asset Turnover Ratio

Asset turnover ratio is a way to see how much sales a company can generate from its assets.

Formula:

Asset Turnover Ratio = Net Sales / Average Total Assets

A higher asset turnover ratio is typically better, as it indicates greater efficiency in terms of how assets are being used to produce sales.

Example:

So, as an example, say a company has $500,000 in net sales and $50,000 in average total assets. Their asset turnover ratio is 10, meaning every dollar in assets generates $10 in sales.

15. Inventory Turnover Ratio

Inventory turnover ratio illustrates how often a company turns over its inventory. Specifically, how many times a company sells and replaces its inventory in a given time frame.

Formula:

Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory

Example:

Investors use average inventory since a company’s inventory can increase or decrease throughout the year as demand ebbs and flows. As an example, if a company has a cost of goods sold equal to $1 million and average inventory of $500,000, its inventory turnover ratio is 2. That means it turns over inventory twice a year.

16. Receivables Turnover Ratio

Receivables turnover ratio measures how well companies manage their accounts receivable. Specifically, it considers how long it takes companies to collect on outstanding receivables.

Formula:

Receivables Turnover Ratio = Net Annual Credit Sales / Average Accounts Receivable

Example:

If a company has $100,000 in net annual credit sales, for example, and $15,000 in average accounts receivable its receivables turnover ratio is 6.67. The higher the number is, the better, since it indicates the business is more efficient at getting customers to pay up.

Coverage Ratios

Coverage ratios are financial ratios that measure how well a company manages its obligations to suppliers, creditors, and anyone else to whom it owes money. Lenders may use coverage ratios to determine a business’s ability to pay back the money it borrows.

17. Debt Service Coverage Ratio

Debt service coverage reflects whether a company can pay all of its debts, including interest and principal, at any given time. This ratio can offer creditors insight into a company’s cash flow and debt situation.

Formula:

Debt Service Coverage Ratio = Operating Income / Total Debt Service Costs

Example:

A ratio above 1 means the company has more than enough money to meet its debt servicing needs. A ratio equal to 1 means its operating income and debt service costs are the same. A ratio below 1 indicates that the company doesn’t have enough operating income to meet its debt service costs.

18. Interest Coverage Ratio

Interest-coverage ratio is a financial ratio that can tell you whether a company is able to pay interest on its debt obligations on time. This is also called the times earned interest ratio.

Formula:

Interest Coverage Ratio = EBIT ( Earnings Before Interest and Taxes) / Annual Interest Expense

Example:

So, for example, a company has an EBIT of $100,000. Meanwhile, annual interest expense is $25,000. That results in an interest coverage ratio of 4, which means the company has four times more earnings than interest payments.

19. Asset-Coverage Ratio

Asset-coverage ratio measures risk by determining how much of a company’s assets would need to be sold to cover its debts. This can give you an idea of a company’s financial stability overall.

Formula:

Asset Coverage Ratio = (Total Assets – Intangible Assets) – (Current Liabilities – Short-term Debt) / Total Debt

You can find all of this information on a company’s balance sheet. The rules for interpreting asset coverage ratio are similar to the ones for debt service coverage ratio.

So a ratio of 1 or higher would suggest the company has sufficient assets to cover its debts. A ratio of 1 would suggest that assets and liabilities are equal. A ratio below 1 means the company doesn’t have enough assets to cover its debts.

Market-Prospect Ratios

Market-prospect ratios make it easier to compare the stock price of a publicly traded company with other financial ratios. These ratios can help analyze trends in stock price movements over time. Earnings per share and price-to-earnings are two examples of market prospect ratios. Investors can also look to dividend payout ratios and dividend yield to judge market prospects.

20. Dividend Payout Ratio

Dividend payout ratio can tell you how much of a company’s net income it pays out to investors as dividends during a specific time period. It’s the balance between the profits passed on to shareholders as dividends and the profits the company keeps.

Formula:

Dividend Payout Ratio = Total Dividends / Net Income

Example:

A company that pays out $1 million in total dividends and has a net income of $5 million has a dividend payout ratio of 0.2. That means 20% of net income goes to shareholders.

21. Dividend Yield

Dividend yield is a financial ratio that tracks how much cash dividends are paid out to common stock shareholders, relative to the market value per share. Investors use this metric to determine how much an investment generates in dividends.

Formula:

Dividend Yield = Cash Dividends Per Share / Market Value Per Share

Example:

For example, a company that pays out $5 in cash dividends per share for shares valued at $50 each are offering investors a dividend yield of 10%.

Ratio Analysis: What Do Financial Ratios Tell You?

Financial statement ratios can be helpful when analyzing stocks. The various formulas included on this financial ratios list offer insight into a company’s profitability, cash flow, debts and assets, all of which can help you form a more complete picture of its overall health. That’s important if you tend to lean toward a fundamental analysis approach for choosing stocks.

Using financial ratios can also give you an idea of how much risk you might be taking on with a particular company, based on how well it manages its financial obligations. You can use these ratios to select companies that align with your risk tolerance and desired return profile.

The Takeaway

Learning the basics of key financial ratios can be a huge help when constructing a stock portfolio. Rather than focusing on a stock’s price, you can use financial ratios to take a closer look under the hood of a company.

If you’re ready to start putting these ratios to use and invest in stocks, the SoFi Invest® investment app can help you take the first steps. You can choose between automated investing if you prefer a hands-off approach, or active trading to create a portfolio that suits your needs and goals.

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